SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission file number 001-35968
MIDWESTONE FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
102 South Clinton Street, Iowa City, IA 52240
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each Class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $1.00 par value
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
(Title of class)
Indicate by check mark if registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. ☐ Yes ☒ No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. ☐ Yes ☒ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. ☒ Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). ☒ Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). ☐ Yes ☒ No
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the last sales price quoted on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $384.2 million.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock, par value $1.00 per share, as of March 6, 2019, was 12,171,032.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Shareholders of MidWestOne Financial Group, Inc. to be held on April 18, 2019, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
MIDWESTONE FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
Annual Report on Form 10-K
Table of Contents
MidWestOne Financial Group, Inc. (“MidWestOne” or the “Company,” which is also referred to herein as “we,” “our” or “us”) is an Iowa corporation incorporated in 1983, a bank holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 and a financial holding company under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999. Our principal executive offices are located at 102 South Clinton Street, Iowa City, Iowa 52240.
We currently operate primarily through our bank subsidiary, MidWestOne Bank, an Iowa state non-member bank chartered in 1934 with its main office in Iowa City, Iowa (the “Bank”), as well as MidWestOne Insurance Services, Inc., our wholly owned subsidiary that operates through three agencies located in central and east-central Iowa.
On August 21, 2018, the Company entered into a merger agreement with ATBancorp, an Iowa corporation, pursuant to which ATBancorp will merge with and into the Company. In connection with the merger, American Trust & Savings Bank, an Iowa state chartered bank and wholly owned subsidiary of ATBancorp, and American Bank & Trust Wisconsin, a Wisconsin state chartered bank and wholly owned subsidiary of ATBancorp, will merge with and into the Bank, which will continue as the surviving bank. The merger agreement also provides that each of the outstanding shares of ATBancorp common stock will be converted into the right of ATBancorp shareholders to receive 117.55 shares of Company common stock and $992.51 in cash. The corporate headquarters of the combined company will be in Iowa City, Iowa. The merger will add approximately $1.3 billion in assets to the Company along with 17 branch locations. The merger is anticipated to be completed in the second quarter of 2019. Following the completion of the merger transaction, we expect current ATBancorp shareholders will own approximately 25% of MidWestOne’s outstanding common stock.
As of December 31, 2018, we had total consolidated assets of $3.29 billion, total deposits of $2.61 billion and total shareholders’ equity of $357.1 million, all of which is common shareholders’ equity. For the year ended December 31, 2018, we generated net income available to common shareholders of $30.4 million, which was an increase from the net income available to common shareholders of $18.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, and an increase from the net income available to common shareholders of $20.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. For our complete financial information as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2018, see Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
The Bank operates a total of 45 banking offices. It operates 23 branches in 13 counties throughout central and east-central Iowa, and 18 offices, which includes 17 branches and a loan production office, in the Twin Cities metro area and western Wisconsin. Additionally, the Bank operates two Florida branches in Naples and Fort Myers, and two offices in the Denver, Colorado area, one of which is a branch and one of which is used exclusively for investment advisory services. The Bank provides full-service retail banking in and around the communities in which its branch offices are located. Deposit products offered include checking and other demand deposit accounts, NOW accounts, savings accounts, money market accounts, certificates of deposit, individual retirement accounts and other time deposits. The Bank offers commercial and industrial, agricultural, commercial and residential real estate and consumer loans. Other products and services include debit cards, automated teller machines, online banking, mobile banking, and safe deposit boxes. The principal services of the Bank consist of making loans to and accepting deposits from individuals, businesses, governmental units and institutional customers. The Bank also has a trust and investment department through which it offers a variety of trust and investment services, including administering estates, personal trusts, and conservatorships and providing property management, farm management, custodial, financial planning, investment advisory and retail securities brokerage services (the latter of which is provided through an agreement with a third-party registered broker-dealer).
Our operating strategy is based upon a sophisticated community banking model delivering a complete line of financial products and services while following five guiding principles: (1) hire and retain excellent employees; (2) take care of our customers; (3) conduct business with the utmost integrity; (4) work as one team; and (5) learn constantly so we can continually improve.
Management believes the personal and professional service offered to customers provides an appealing alternative to the “megabanks” that have resulted from large out-of-state national banks acquiring Iowa and Minnesota-based community banks. While we employ a community banking philosophy, we believe that our size, combined with our complete line of financial products and services, is sufficient to effectively compete in our relevant market areas. To remain price competitive, management
also believes that we must grow organically as well as through strategic transactions, manage expenses and our efficiency ratio, and remain disciplined in our asset/liability management practices.
Our holding company’s principal offices are located in Iowa City, Iowa. The city of Iowa City is located in east-central Iowa, approximately 220 miles west of Chicago, Illinois, and approximately 115 miles east of Des Moines, Iowa. It is situated approximately 60 miles west of the Mississippi River on Interstate 80 and is the home of the University of Iowa, a public university with approximately 24,500 undergraduate students and 8,900 graduate and professional students. Iowa City is the home of the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, a 811-bed comprehensive academic medical center and regional referral center with approximately 1,650 staff physicians, residents, and fellows and approximately 2,300 professional nurses. The city of Iowa City has a total population of approximately 76,000 and the Iowa City metropolitan statistical area (“MSA”) has a total population of approximately 171,000. Iowa City is the fifth largest city in the state of Iowa. Based on deposit information collected by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the ”FDIC”) as of June 30, 2018, the most recent date for which data is available, the Bank had the second highest deposit market share in the Iowa City MSA at approximately 15.9% compared to 19 other institutions in the market.
The Bank operates 23 branch offices in 13 counties in central and east-central Iowa, 13 branches along with a loan production office in Minnesota, 4 branches in Wisconsin, 2 branches in Florida, and 1 branch in Denver, Colorado. Based on deposit information collected by the FDIC as of June 30, 2018, in 6 of the 13 counties in Iowa, the Bank held between 8% and 42% of the deposit market share, which includes Mahaska County, Iowa, where the Bank held approximately 42% of the deposit market share. In the remaining 7 counties of Iowa, the Bank’s market share was less than 8%. In Chisago County, Minnesota, the Bank held approximately 18% of the deposit market share, but less than 6% of the deposit market share in the other 7 counties in Minnesota. In Polk County, Wisconsin, the Bank held approximately 24% of the deposit market share. In the remaining 4 counties in Wisconsin, Florida and Colorado, the Bank’s market share was less than 5%. Following the anticipated merger with ATBancorp, the Bank will also have 32% of the deposit market share in Dubuque County, Iowa, and 11% of the deposit market share in Grant County, Wisconsin.
We provide a range of commercial and retail lending services to businesses, individuals and government agencies. These credit activities include commercial and residential real estate loans; commercial and industrial loans; agricultural loans; and consumer loans.
We market our services to qualified lending customers. Lending officers actively solicit the business of new companies entering their market areas as well as long-standing members of the business communities in which we operate. Through professional service, competitive pricing and innovative structure, we have been successful in attracting new lending customers. We also actively pursue consumer lending opportunities. With convenient locations, advertising, customer communications, and competitive technology, we believe that we have been successful in capitalizing on the credit needs of our market areas.
Our management emphasizes credit quality and seeks to avoid undue concentrations of loans to a single industry or based on a single class of collateral. We have established lending policies that include a number of underwriting factors to be considered in making a loan, including location, loan-to-value ratio, cash flow, interest rate and credit history of the borrower.
Real Estate Loans
Construction and Development Loans. We offer loans both to individuals who are constructing personal residences and to real estate developers and building contractors for the acquisition of land for development and the construction of homes and commercial properties. These loans are generally in-market to known and established borrowers. Construction and development loans generally have a short term, such as one to two years. As of December 31, 2018, construction and development loans constituted approximately 9.1% of our total loan portfolio.
Mortgage Loans. We offer residential, commercial and agricultural mortgage loans. As of December 31, 2018, we had $1.73 billion in combined residential, commercial, including construction and development loans, and farmland mortgage loans outstanding, which represented approximately 72.1% of our total loan portfolio.
Residential mortgage lending is a focal point for us, as residential real estate loans constituted approximately 19.3% of our total loan portfolio at December 31, 2018. Included in this category are home equity loans made to individuals. As long-term interest rates have remained at relatively low levels since 2008, many customers opted for mortgage loans that have a fixed rate with 15- or 30-year maturities. We generally retain short-term residential mortgage loans that we originate for our own portfolio, but sell most long-term loans to other parties while retaining servicing rights on the majority of such loans. We also perform loan servicing activity for third parties on participations sold. At December 31, 2018, we serviced approximately $299.6 million in mortgage loans for others. We do not offer subprime mortgage loans and do not operate a wholesale mortgage business.
We also offer mortgage loans to our commercial and agricultural customers for the acquisition of real estate used in their businesses, such as offices, farmland, warehouses and production facilities, and to real estate investors for the acquisition of apartment buildings, retail centers, office buildings and other commercial buildings. In deciding whether to make a commercial real estate loan, we consider, among other things, the experience and qualifications of the borrower as well as the value and cash flow of the underlying property. Some factors considered are net operating income of the property before debt service and depreciation, the debt service coverage ratio (the ratio of the property’s net cash flow to debt service requirements), the cash flows of the borrower, the ratio of the loan amount to the property value and the overall creditworthiness of the prospective borrower. As of December 31, 2018, commercial and farmland real estate mortgage loans, including construction and development loans, constituted approximately 52.8% of our total loan portfolio.
Commercial and Industrial Loans
We have a strong commercial loan base. We focus on, and tailor our commercial loan programs to, small- to mid-sized businesses in our market areas. Our loan portfolio includes loans to wholesalers, manufacturers, contractors, business services companies and retailers. We provide a wide range of business loans, including lines of credit for working capital and operational purposes and term loans for the acquisition of equipment. Although most loans are made on a secured basis, loans may be made on an unsecured basis where warranted by the overall financial condition of the borrower. Terms of commercial business loans generally range from one to five years.
Our commercial and industrial loans are primarily made based on the reported cash flow of the borrower and secondarily on the underlying collateral provided by the borrower. The collateral support provided by the borrower for most of these loans and the probability of repayment is based on the liquidation of the pledged collateral and enforcement of a personal guarantee, if any exists. The primary repayment risks of commercial loans are that the cash flows of the borrower may be unpredictable, and the collateral securing these loans may fluctuate in value. As of December 31, 2018, commercial and industrial loans comprised approximately 22.2% of our total loan portfolio.
Due to the rural market areas in and around which we operate, agricultural loans are an important part of our business. Agricultural loans include loans made to finance agricultural production and other loans to farmers and farming operations. Agricultural loans comprised approximately 4.1% of our total loan portfolio at December 31, 2018.
Agricultural loans, most of which are secured by crops, livestock and machinery, are generally provided to finance capital improvements and farm operations as well as acquisitions of livestock and machinery. The ability of the borrower to repay may be affected by many factors outside of the borrower’s control, including adverse weather conditions, loss of livestock due to disease or other factors, declines in market prices for agricultural products and the impact of government regulations. The ultimate repayment of agricultural loans is dependent upon the profitable operation or management of the agricultural entity.
Our agricultural lenders work closely with our customers, including companies and individual farmers, and review the preparation of budgets and cash flow projections for the ensuing crop year. These budgets and cash flow projections are monitored closely during the year and reviewed with the customers at least once annually. We also work closely with governmental agencies to help agricultural customers obtain credit enhancement products such as loan guarantees or interest rate assistance.
Our consumer lending department provides all types of consumer loans, including personal loans (secured or unsecured) and automobile loans. Consumer loans typically have shorter terms, lower balances, higher yields and higher risks of default than one- to four-family residential real estate mortgage loans. Consumer loan collections are dependent on the borrower’s continuing financial stability and are therefore more likely to be affected by adverse personal circumstances. As of December 31, 2018, consumer loans comprised only 1.6% of our total loan portfolio.
Other Products and Services
We believe that we offer competitive deposit products and programs that address the needs of customers in each of the local markets that we serve. The deposit products are offered to individuals, nonprofit organizations, partnerships, small businesses, corporations and public entities. These products include non-interest-bearing and interest-bearing demand deposits, savings accounts, money market accounts and certificates of deposit.
Trust and Investment Services
We offer trust and investment services, primarily in our Iowa market at this time, to help our business and individual clients in meeting their financial goals and preserving wealth. Our services include administering estates, personal trusts, and conservatorships, and providing property management, farm management, investment advisory, retail securities brokerage, financial planning and custodial services. Licensed brokers (who are registered representatives of a third-party registered broker-dealer) serve selected branches and provide investment-related services including securities trading, financial planning, mutual funds sales, fixed and variable annuities and tax-exempt and conventional unit trusts.
Through our insurance subsidiary, MidWestOne Insurance Services, Inc., we offer property and casualty insurance products to individuals and small businesses in the Iowa markets that we service.
Liquidity and Funding
We encounter competition in all areas of our business pursuits. To compete effectively, grow our market share, maintain flexibility and keep pace with changing economic and social conditions, we continuously refine and develop our products and services. The principal methods of competing in the financial services industry are through service, convenience and price.
The banking industry is highly competitive, and we face strong direct competition for deposits, loans, and other finance-related services. Our offices in Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Florida, and Colorado compete with other commercial banks, thrifts, credit unions, stockbrokers, finance divisions of auto and farm equipment companies, agricultural suppliers, and other agriculture-related lenders. Some of these competitors are local, while others are statewide, regional or nationwide. We compete for deposits principally by offering depositors a wide variety of deposit programs, convenient office locations, hours and other services, and for loan originations primarily through the interest rates and loan fees we charge, the variety of our loan products and the efficiency and quality of services we provide to borrowers, with an emphasis on building long-lasting relationships. Some of the financial institutions and financial service organizations with which we compete are not subject to the same degree of regulation as that imposed on federally insured state-chartered banks. The financial services industry is also likely to become more competitive as technological advances enable more companies to provide financial services without a physical presence in a given market. These technological advances may diminish the importance of depository institutions and other financial intermediaries in the transfer of funds between parties.
We compete for loans principally through the range and quality of the services we provide, with an emphasis on building long-lasting relationships. Our strategy is to serve our customers above and beyond their expectations through excellence in customer service and needs-based selling. We believe that our long-standing presence in the communities we serve and the personal service we emphasize enhance our ability to compete favorably in attracting and retaining individual and business customers. We actively solicit deposit-oriented clients and compete for deposits by offering personal attention, combined with electronic banking convenience, professional service and competitive interest rates.
As of December 31, 2018, we had 597 full-time equivalent employees. We provide our employees with a comprehensive program of benefits, some of which are on a contributory basis, including comprehensive medical and dental plans, life insurance,
long-term and short-term disability coverage, a 401(k) plan, and an employee stock ownership plan. None of our employees are represented by unions. Our management considers its relationship with our employees to be good.
We maintain a website for the Bank at www.midwestone.com. We make available, free of charge, on this website our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Information on, or accessible through, our website is not part of, or incorporated by reference in, this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Supervision and Regulation
FDIC-insured institutions, like the Bank, their holding companies and their affiliates are extensively regulated under federal and state law. As a result, our growth and earnings performance may be affected not only by management decisions and general economic conditions, but also by the requirements of federal and state statutes and by the regulations and policies of various bank regulatory agencies, including the Iowa Division of Banking (the “Iowa Division”), the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”), the FDIC and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”). Furthermore, taxation laws administered by the Internal Revenue Service and state taxing authorities, accounting rules developed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”), securities laws administered by the SEC and state securities authorities, and anti-money laundering laws enforced by the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“Treasury”) have an impact on our business. The effect of these statutes, regulations, regulatory policies and accounting rules are significant to our operations and results.
Federal and state banking laws impose a comprehensive system of supervision, regulation and enforcement on the operations of FDIC-insured institutions, their holding companies and affiliates that is intended primarily for the protection of the FDIC-insured deposits and depositors of banks, rather than shareholders. These laws, and the regulations of the bank regulatory agencies issued under them, affect, among other things, the scope of our business, the kinds and amounts of investments the Company and the Bank may make, reserve requirements, required capital levels relative to assets, the nature and amount of collateral for loans, the establishment of branches, the ability to merge, consolidate and acquire, dealings with our insiders and affiliates and the payment of dividends. In reaction to the global financial crisis and particularly following the passage of the Dodd Frank Act, we experienced heightened regulatory requirements and scrutiny. Although the reforms primarily targeted systemically important financial service providers, their influence filtered down in varying degrees to community banks over time and caused our compliance and risk management processes, and the costs thereof, to increase. After the 2016 federal elections, momentum to decrease the regulatory burden on community banks gathered strength. In May 2018, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act (the “Regulatory Relief Act”) was enacted to modify or remove certain financial reform rules and regulations. While the Regulatory Relief Act maintains most of the regulatory structure established by the Dodd-Frank Act, it amends certain aspects of the regulatory framework for small depository institutions with assets of less than $10 billion, like us, and for large banks with assets of more than $50 billion. Many of these changes are intended to result in meaningful regulatory relief for community banks and their holding companies, including new rules that may make the capital requirements less complex. For a discussion of capital requirements, see “-The Role of Capital.” It also eliminated questions about the applicability of certain Dodd-Frank Act reforms to community bank systems, including relieving us of any requirement to engage in mandatory stress tests or comply with the Volcker Rule’s complicated prohibitions on proprietary trading and ownership of private funds. We believe these reforms are favorable to our operations, but the true impact remains difficult to predict until rulemaking is complete and the reforms are fully implemented.
The supervisory framework for U.S. banking organizations subjects banks and bank holding companies to regular examination by their respective regulatory agencies, which results in examination reports and ratings that are not publicly available and that can impact the conduct and growth of their business. These examinations consider not only compliance with applicable laws and regulations, but also capital levels, asset quality and risk, management ability and performance, earnings, liquidity, and various other factors. The regulatory agencies generally have broad discretion to impose restrictions and limitations on the operations of a regulated entity where the agencies determine, among other things, that such operations are unsafe or unsound, fail to comply with applicable law or are otherwise inconsistent with laws and regulations.
The following is a summary of the material elements of the supervisory and regulatory framework applicable to the Company and the Bank, beginning with a discussion of the continuing regulatory emphasis on our capital levels. It does not
describe all of the statutes, regulations and regulatory policies that apply, nor does it restate all of the requirements of those that are described. The descriptions are qualified in their entirety by reference to the particular statutory and regulatory provision.
The Role of Capital
Regulatory capital represents the net assets of a banking organization available to absorb losses. Because of the risks attendant to their business, FDIC-insured institutions are generally required to hold more capital than other businesses, which directly affects their earnings capabilities. While capital has historically been one of the key measures of the financial health of both bank holding companies and banks, its role became fundamentally more important in the wake of the global financial crisis, as the banking regulators recognized that the amount and quality of capital held by banks prior to the crisis was insufficient to absorb losses during periods of severe stress. Certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act and Basel III, discussed below, establish capital standards for banks and bank holding companies that are meaningfully more stringent than those in place previously.
Minimum Required Capital Levels. Banks have been required to hold minimum levels of capital based on guidelines established by the bank regulatory agencies since 1983. The minimums have been expressed in terms of ratios of “capital” divided by “total assets”. As discussed below, bank capital measures have become more sophisticated over the years and have focused more on the quality of capital and the risk of assets. Bank holding companies have historically had to comply with less stringent capital standards than their bank subsidiaries and have been able to raise capital with hybrid instruments such as trust preferred securities. The Dodd-Frank Act mandated the Federal Reserve to establish minimum capital levels for holding companies on a consolidated basis as stringent as those required for FDIC-insured institutions. A result of this change is that the proceeds of hybrid instruments, such as trust preferred securities, were excluded from capital over a phase-out period. However, if such securities were issued prior to May 19, 2010 by bank holding companies with less than $15 billion of assets, they may be retained, subject to certain restrictions. Because we have assets of less than $15 billion, we are able to maintain our trust preferred proceeds as capital but we have to comply with new capital mandates in other respects and will not be able to raise capital in the future through the issuance of trust preferred securities.
The Basel International Capital Accords. The risk-based capital guidelines for U.S. banks since 1989 were based upon the 1988 capital accord known as “Basel I” adopted by the international Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, a committee of central banks and bank supervisors that acts as the primary global standard-setter for prudential regulation, as implemented by the U.S. bank regulatory agencies on an interagency basis. The accord recognized that bank assets for the purpose of the capital ratio calculations needed to be assigned risk weights (the theory being that riskier assets should require more capital) and that off-balance sheet exposures needed to be factored in the calculations. Basel I had a very simple formula for assigning risk weights to bank assets from 0% to 100% based on four categories. In 2008, the banking agencies collaboratively began to phase-in capital standards based on a second capital accord, referred to as “Basel II,” for large or “core” international banks (generally defined for U.S. purposes as having total assets of $250 billion or more, or consolidated foreign exposures of $10 billion or more) known as “advanced approaches” banks. The primary focus of Basel II was on the calculation of risk weights based on complex models developed by each advanced approaches bank. Because most banks were not subject to Basel II, the U.S. bank regulators worked to improve the risk sensitivity of Basel I standards without imposing the complexities of Basel II. This “standardized approach” increased the number of risk-weight categories and recognized risks well above the original 100% risk weight. It is institutionalized by the Dodd-Frank Act for all banking organizations, even for the advanced approaches banks, as a floor.
On September 12, 2010, the Group of Governors and Heads of Supervision, the oversight body of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, announced agreement on a strengthened set of capital requirements for banking organizations around the world, known as Basel III, to address deficiencies recognized in connection with the global financial crisis.
The Basel III Rule. In July 2013, the U.S. federal banking agencies approved the implementation of the Basel III regulatory capital reforms in pertinent part, and, at the same time, promulgated rules effecting certain changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act (the “Basel III Rule”). In contrast to capital requirements historically, which were in the form of guidelines, Basel III was released in the form of enforceable regulations by each of the regulatory agencies. The Basel III Rule is applicable to all banking organizations that are subject to minimum capital requirements, including federal and state banks and savings and loan associations, as well as to bank and savings and loan holding companies, other than “small bank holding companies” (generally holding companies with consolidated assets of less than $3 billion that do not have securities registered with the SEC). Banking organizations became subject to the Basel III Rule on January 1, 2015 and all parts of it were fully phased-in as of January 1, 2019.
The Basel III Rule increased the required quantity and quality of capital and, for nearly every class of assets, it requires a more complex, detailed and calibrated assessment of risk and calculation of risk-weight amounts.
Not only did the Basel III Rule increase most of the required minimum capital ratios in effect prior to January 1, 2015, but it introduced the concept of Common Equity Tier 1 Capital, which consists primarily of common stock, related surplus (net of Treasury stock), retained earnings, and Common Equity Tier 1 minority interests subject to certain regulatory adjustments. The Basel III Rule also changed the definition of capital by establishing more stringent criteria that instruments must meet to be considered Additional Tier 1 Capital (primarily non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock that meets certain requirements) and Tier 2 Capital (primarily other types of preferred stock and subordinated debt, subject to limitations). A number of instruments that qualified as Tier 1 Capital under Basel I do not qualify, or their qualifications changed. For example, noncumulative perpetual preferred stock, which qualified as simple Tier 1 Capital under Basel I, does not qualify as Common Equity Tier 1 Capital, but qualifies as Additional Tier 1 Capital. The Basel III Rule also constrained the inclusion of minority interests, mortgage-servicing assets, and deferred tax assets in capital and requires deductions from Common Equity Tier 1 Capital in the event that such assets exceed a certain percentage of a banking institution’s Common Equity Tier 1 Capital.
The Basel III Rule required minimum capital ratios as of January 1, 2015, as follows:
A ratio of minimum Common Equity Tier 1 Capital equal to 4.5% of risk-weighted assets;
An increase in the minimum required amount of Tier 1 Capital from 4% to 6% of risk-weighted assets;
A continuation of the minimum required amount of Total Capital (Tier 1 plus Tier 2) at 8% of risk-weighted assets; and
A minimum leverage ratio of Tier 1 Capital to total quarterly average assets equal to 4% in all circumstances.
In addition, institutions that seek the freedom to make capital distributions (including for dividends and repurchases of stock) and pay discretionary bonuses to executive officers without restriction must also maintain 2.5% in Common Equity Tier 1 Capital attributable to a capital conservation buffer (fully phased-in as of January 1, 2019). The purpose of the conservation buffer is to ensure that banking institutions maintain a buffer of capital that can be used to absorb losses during periods of financial and economic stress. Factoring in the conservation buffer increases the minimum ratios depicted above to 7% for Common Equity Tier 1 Capital, 8.5% for Tier 1 Capital and 10.5% for Total Capital.
Well-Capitalized Requirements. The ratios described above are minimum standards in order for banking organizations to be considered “adequately capitalized.” Bank regulatory agencies uniformly encourage banks to hold more capital and be “well-capitalized” and, to that end, federal law and regulations provide various incentives for banking organizations to maintain regulatory capital at levels in excess of minimum regulatory requirements. For example, a banking organization that is well-capitalized may: (i) qualify for exemptions from prior notice or application requirements otherwise applicable to certain types of activities; (ii) qualify for expedited processing of other required notices or applications; and (iii) accept, roll-over or renew brokered deposits. Higher capital levels could also be required if warranted by the particular circumstances or risk profiles of individual banking organizations. For example, the Federal Reserve’s capital guidelines contemplate that additional capital may be required to take adequate account of, among other things, interest rate risk, or the risks posed by concentrations of credit, nontraditional activities or securities trading activities. Further, any banking organization experiencing or anticipating significant growth would be expected to maintain capital ratios, including tangible capital positions (i.e., Tier 1 Capital less all intangible assets), well above the minimum levels.
Under the capital regulations of the FDIC and Federal Reserve, in order to be well‑capitalized, a banking organization must maintain:
A Common Equity Tier 1 Capital ratio to risk-weighted assets of 6.5% or more;
A ratio of Tier 1 Capital to total risk-weighted assets of 8% or more (6% under Basel I);
A ratio of Total Capital to total risk-weighted assets of 10% or more (the same as Basel I); and
A leverage ratio of Tier 1 Capital to total adjusted average quarterly assets of 5% or greater.
It is possible under the Basel III Rule to be well-capitalized while remaining out of compliance with the capital conservation buffer discussed above.
As of December 31, 2018: (i) the Bank was not subject to a directive from the FDIC to increase its capital and (ii) the Bank was well-capitalized, as defined by FDIC regulations. As of December 31, 2018, the Company had regulatory capital in excess of the Federal Reserve’s requirements and met the Basel III Rule requirements to be well-capitalized.
Prompt Corrective Action. The concept of an institution being “well-capitalized” is part of a regulatory enforcement regime that provides the federal banking regulators with broad power to take “prompt corrective action” to resolve the problems of institutions based on the capital level of each particular institution. The extent of the regulators’ powers depends on whether
the institution in question is “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized” or “critically undercapitalized,” in each case as defined by regulation. Depending upon the capital category to which an institution is assigned, the regulators’ corrective powers include: (i) requiring the institution to submit a capital restoration plan; (ii) limiting the institution’s asset growth and restricting its activities; (iii) requiring the institution to issue additional capital stock (including additional voting stock) or to sell itself; (iv) restricting transactions between the institution and its affiliates; (v) restricting the interest rate that the institution may pay on deposits; (vi) ordering a new election of directors of the institution; (vii) requiring that senior executive officers or directors be dismissed; (viii) prohibiting the institution from accepting deposits from correspondent banks; (ix) requiring the institution to divest certain subsidiaries; (x) prohibiting the payment of principal or interest on subordinated debt; and (xi) ultimately, appointing a receiver for the institution.
The Potential for Community Bank Capital Simplification. Community banks have long raised concerns with bank regulators about the regulatory burden, complexity, and costs associated with certain provisions of the Basel III Rule. In response, Congress provided a potential Basel III “off-ramp” for institutions, like us, with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion. Section 201 of the Regulatory Relief Act instructed the federal banking regulators to establish a single "Community Bank Leverage Ratio" (“CBLR”) of between 8 and 10%. On November 21, 2018, the agencies proposed setting the CBLR at 9% of tangible equity to total assets for a qualifying bank to be well-capitalized. Under the proposal, a community banking organization would be eligible to elect the new framework if it has less than $10 billion in total consolidated assets, limited amounts of certain assets and off-balance sheet exposures, and a CBLR greater than 9%. The electing institution would not be required to calculate the existing risk-based and leverage capital requirements of the Basel III Rule and would not need to risk weight its assets for purposes of capital calculations.
We are in the process of considering the Federal Reserve’s CBLR proposal and will await the final regulation to determine whether it will elect the framework.
Regulation and Supervision of the Company
General. The Company, as the sole shareholder of the Bank, is a bank holding company that has elected financial holding company status. As a bank holding company, we are registered with, and subject to regulation by, the Federal Reserve under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (the “BHCA”). We are legally obligated to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to the Bank and to commit resources to support the Bank in circumstances where we might not otherwise do so. Under the BHCA, we are subject to periodic examination by the Federal Reserve and are required to file with the Federal Reserve periodic reports of our operations and such additional information regarding us and the Bank as the Federal Reserve may require.
Acquisitions, Activities and Change in Control. The primary purpose of a bank holding company is to control and manage banks. The BHCA generally requires the prior approval of the Federal Reserve for any merger involving a bank holding company or any acquisition by a bank holding company of another bank or bank holding company. Subject to certain conditions (including deposit concentration limits established by the BHCA), the Federal Reserve may allow a bank holding company to acquire banks located in any state of the United States. In approving interstate acquisitions, the Federal Reserve is required to give effect to applicable state law limitations on the aggregate amount of deposits that may be held by the acquiring bank holding company and its FDIC-insured institution affiliates in the state in which the target bank is located (provided that those limits do not discriminate against out-of-state institutions or their holding companies) and state laws that require that the target bank have been in existence for a minimum period of time (not to exceed five years) before being acquired by an out-of-state bank holding company. Furthermore, in accordance with the Dodd-Frank Act, bank holding companies must be well-capitalized and well-managed in order to effect interstate mergers or acquisitions. For a discussion of the capital requirements, see “-The Role of Capital” above.
The BHCA generally prohibits us from acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any company that is not a bank and from engaging in any business other than that of banking, managing and controlling banks or furnishing services to banks and their subsidiaries. This general prohibition is subject to a number of exceptions. The principal exception allows bank holding companies to engage in, and to own shares of companies engaged in, certain businesses found by the Federal Reserve prior to November 11, 1999 to be “so closely related to banking ... as to be a proper incident thereto.” This authority permits us to engage in a variety of banking-related businesses, including the ownership and operation of a savings association, or any entity engaged in consumer finance, equipment leasing, the operation of a computer service bureau (including software development) and mortgage banking and brokerage services. The BHCA does not place territorial restrictions on the domestic activities of nonbank subsidiaries of bank holding companies.
Additionally, bank holding companies that meet certain eligibility requirements prescribed by the BHCA and elect to operate as financial holding companies may engage in, or own shares in companies engaged in, a wider range of nonbanking activities, including securities and insurance underwriting and sales, merchant banking and any other activity that the Federal Reserve, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, determines by regulation or order is financial in nature or incidental
to any such financial activity or that the Federal Reserve determines by order to be complementary to any such financial activity and does not pose a substantial risk to the safety or soundness of FDIC-insured institutions or the financial system generally. We have elected to operate as a financial holding company. In order to maintain our status as a financial holding company, the Company and the Bank must be well-capitalized, well-managed, and the Bank must have a least a satisfactory Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”) rating. If the Federal Reserve determines that a financial holding company is not well-capitalized or well-managed, we have a period of time in which to achieve compliance, but during the period of noncompliance, the Federal Reserve may place any limitations on us it believes to be appropriate. Furthermore, if the Federal Reserve determines that a financial holding company’s subsidiary bank has not received a satisfactory CRA rating, that company will not be able to commence any new financial activities or acquire a company that engages in such activities.
Change in Control. Federal law also prohibits any person or company from acquiring “control” of an FDIC-insured depository institution or its holding company without prior notice to the appropriate federal bank regulator. “Control” is conclusively presumed to exist upon the acquisition of 25% or more of the outstanding voting securities of a bank or bank holding company, but may arise under certain circumstances between 10% and 24.99% ownership.
Capital Requirements. Bank holding companies are required to maintain capital in accordance with Federal Reserve capital adequacy requirements. For a discussion of capital requirements, see “-The Role of Capital” above.
Dividend Payments. Our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders may be affected by both general corporate law considerations and policies of the Federal Reserve applicable to bank holding companies. As an Iowa corporation, we are subject to the limitations of Iowa law, which allows us to pay dividends unless, after such dividend, (i) we would not be able to pay our debts as they become due in the usual course of business or (ii) our total assets would be less than the sum of our total liabilities plus any amount that would be needed if we were to be dissolved at the time of the dividend payment, to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of shareholders whose rights are superior to the rights of the shareholders receiving the distribution.
As a general matter, the Federal Reserve has indicated that the board of directors of a bank holding company should eliminate, defer or significantly reduce dividends to shareholders if: (i) the company’s net income available to shareholders for the past four quarters, net of dividends previously paid during that period, is not sufficient to fully fund the dividends; (ii) the prospective rate of earnings retention is inconsistent with the company’s capital needs and overall current and prospective financial condition; or (iii) the company will not meet, or is in danger of not meeting, its minimum regulatory capital adequacy ratios. The Federal Reserve also possesses enforcement powers over bank holding companies and their nonbank subsidiaries to prevent or remedy actions that represent unsafe or unsound practices or violations of applicable statutes and regulations. Among these powers is the ability to proscribe the payment of dividends by banks and bank holding companies. In addition, under the Basel III Rule, institutions that seek the freedom to pay dividends have to maintain 2.5% in Common Equity Tier 1 Capital attributable to the capital conservation buffer. See “-The Role of Capital” above.
Incentive Compensation. There have been a number of developments in recent years focused on incentive compensation plans sponsored by bank holding companies and banks, reflecting recognition by the bank regulatory agencies and Congress that flawed incentive compensation practices in the financial industry were one of many factors contributing to the global financial crisis. Layered on top of that are the abuses in the headlines dealing with product cross-selling incentive plans. The result is interagency guidance on sound incentive compensation practices.
The interagency guidance recognized three core principles. Effective incentive plans should: (i) provide employees incentives that appropriately balance risk and reward; (ii) be compatible with effective controls and risk-management; and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the organization’s board of directors. Much of the guidance addresses large banking organizations and, because of the size and complexity of their operations, the regulators expect those organizations to maintain systematic and formalized policies, procedures, and systems for ensuring that the incentive compensation arrangements for all executive and non-executive employees covered by this guidance are identified and reviewed, and appropriately balance risks and rewards. Smaller banking organizations like us that use incentive compensation arrangements are expected to be less extensive, formalized, and detailed than those of the larger banks.
Monetary Policy. The monetary policy of the Federal Reserve has a significant effect on the operating results of financial or bank holding companies and their subsidiaries. Among the tools available to the Federal Reserve to affect the money supply are open market transactions in U.S. government securities, changes in the discount rate on bank borrowings and changes in reserve requirements against bank deposits. These means are used in varying combinations to influence overall growth and distribution of bank loans, investments and deposits, and their use may affect interest rates charged on loans or paid on deposits.
Federal Securities Regulation. Our common stock is registered with the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Exchange Act. Consequently, we are subject to the information, proxy solicitation, insider trading and other restrictions and requirements of the SEC under the Exchange Act.
Corporate Governance. The Dodd-Frank Act addressed many investor protection, corporate governance and executive compensation matters that will affect most U.S. publicly traded companies. The Dodd Frank Act increased shareholder influence over boards of directors by requiring companies to give shareholders a nonbinding vote on executive compensation and so-called “golden parachute” payments, and authorizing the SEC to promulgate rules that would allow shareholders to nominate and solicit voters for their own candidates using a company’s proxy materials. The legislation also directed the Federal Reserve to promulgate rules prohibiting excessive compensation paid to executives of bank holding companies, regardless of whether such companies are publicly traded.
Supervision and Regulation of the Bank
General. The Bank is an Iowa-chartered bank. The deposit accounts of the Bank are insured by the FDIC’s Deposit Insurance Fund (“DIF”) to the maximum extent provided under federal law and FDIC regulations, currently $250,000 per insured depositor category. As an Iowa-chartered FDIC-insured bank, the Bank is subject to the examination, supervision, reporting and enforcement requirements of the Iowa Division, the chartering authority for Iowa banks, and the FDIC, designated by federal law as the primary federal regulator of insured state banks that, like the Bank, are not members of the Federal Reserve System (nonmember banks).
Deposit Insurance. As an FDIC-insured institution, the Bank is required to pay deposit insurance premium assessments to the FDIC. The FDIC has adopted a risk-based assessment system whereby FDIC-insured institutions pay insurance premiums at rates based on their risk classification. For institutions like the Bank that are not considered large and highly complex banking organizations, assessments are now based on examination ratings and financial ratios. The total base assessment rates currently range from 1.5 basis points to 30 basis points. At least semi-annually, the FDIC updates its loss and income projections for the DIF and, if needed, increases or decreases the assessment rates, following notice and comment on proposed rulemaking. The assessment base against which an FDIC-insured institution’s deposit insurance premiums paid to the DIF has been calculated since effectiveness of the Dodd-Frank Act is based on its average consolidated total assets less its average tangible equity. This method shifted the burden of deposit insurance premiums toward those large depository institutions that rely on funding sources other than U.S. deposits.
The reserve ratio is the FDIC insurance fund balance divided by estimated insured deposits. The Dodd-Frank Act altered the minimum reserve ratio of the DIF, increasing the minimum from 1.15% to 1.35% of the estimated amount of total insured deposits, and eliminating the requirement that the FDIC pay dividends to FDIC-insured institutions when the reserve ratio exceeds certain thresholds. The reserve ratio reached 1.36% as of September 30, 2018 (most recent available), exceeding the statutory required minimum reserve ratio of 1.35%. The FDIC will provide assessment credits to insured depository institutions, like the Bank, with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion for the portion of their regular assessments that contribute to growth in the reserve ratio between 1.15% and 1.35%. The FDIC will apply the credits each quarter that the reserve ratio is at least 1.38% to offset the regular deposit insurance assessments of institutions with credits.
FICO Assessments. In addition to paying basic deposit insurance assessments, FDIC-insured institutions must pay Federal Corporation (“FICO”) assessments. FICO is a mixed-ownership governmental corporation chartered by the former Federal Home Loan Bank Board pursuant to the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987 to function as a financing vehicle for the recapitalization of the former Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation. FICO issued 30-year noncallable bonds of approximately $8.1 billion that mature in 2018 through 2019. FICO’s authority to issue bonds ended on December 12, 1991. Since 1996, federal legislation has required that all FDIC-insured institutions pay assessments to cover interest payments on FICO’s outstanding obligations. The FICO assessment rate is adjusted quarterly and for the fourth quarter of 2018 was 32 cents per $100 dollars of assessable deposits.
Supervisory Assessments. All Iowa banks are required to pay supervisory assessments to the Iowa Division to fund the operations of that agency. The amount of the assessment is calculated on the basis of the Bank’s total assets. During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Bank paid supervisory assessments to the Iowa Division totaling approximately $141,000.
Capital Requirements. Banks are generally required to maintain capital levels in excess of other businesses. For a discussion of capital requirements, see “-The Role of Capital” above.
Liquidity Requirements. Liquidity is a measure of the ability and ease with which bank assets may be converted to cash. Liquid assets are those that can be converted to cash quickly if needed to meet financial obligations. To remain viable, FDIC-insured institutions must have enough liquid assets to meet their near-term obligations, such as withdrawals by depositors. Because the global financial crisis was in part a liquidity crisis, Basel III also includes a liquidity framework that requires FDIC-insured institutions to measure their liquidity against specific liquidity tests. One test, referred to as the Liquidity Coverage Ration (“LCR”), is designed to ensure that the banking entity has an adequate stock of unencumbered high-quality liquid assets that can be converted easily and immediately in private markets into cash to meet liquidity needs for a 30-calendar day liquidity stress scenario. The other test, known as the Net Stable Funding Ration (“NSFR”), is designed to promote more medium- and long-term funding of the assets and activities of FDIC-insured institutions over a one-year horizon. These tests provide an incentive for banks and holding companies to increase their holdings in Treasury securities and other sovereign debt as a component of assets, increase the use of long-term debt as a funding source and rely on stable funding like core deposits (in lieu of brokered deposits).
In addition to liquidity guidelines already in place, the federal bank regulatory agencies implemented the Basel III LCR in September 2014, which requires large financial firms to hold levels of liquid assets sufficient to protect against constraints on their funding during times of financial turmoil, and in 2016 proposed implementation of the NSFR. While these rules do not, and will not, apply to the Bank, we continue to review our liquidity risk management policies in light of these developments.
Dividend Payments. The primary source of funds for the Company is dividends from the Bank. Under the Iowa Banking Act, Iowa-chartered banks generally may pay dividends only out of undivided profits. The Iowa Division may restrict the declaration or payment of a dividend by an Iowa-chartered bank, such as the Bank. The payment of dividends by any FDIC-insured institution is affected by the requirement to maintain adequate capital pursuant to applicable capital adequacy guidelines and regulations, and a FDIC-insured institution generally is prohibited from paying any dividends if, following payment thereof, the institution would be undercapitalized. As described above, the Bank exceeded its capital requirements under applicable guidelines as of December 31, 2018. Notwithstanding the availability of funds for dividends, however, the FDIC and the Iowa Division may prohibit the payment of dividends by the Bank if either or both determine such payment would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice. In addition, under the Basel III Rule, institutions that seek the freedom to pay dividends will have to maintain 2.5% in Common Equity Tier 1 Capital attributable to the capital conservation buffer. See “-The Role of Capital” above.
State Bank Investments and Activities. The Bank is permitted to make investments and engage in activities directly or through subsidiaries as authorized by Iowa law. However, under federal law and FDIC regulations, FDIC-insured state banks are prohibited, subject to certain exceptions, from making or retaining equity investments of a type, or in an amount, that are not permissible for a national bank. Federal law and FDIC regulations also prohibit FDIC-insured state banks and their subsidiaries, subject to certain exceptions, from engaging as principal in any activity that is not permitted for a national bank unless the bank meets, and continues to meet, its minimum regulatory capital requirements and the FDIC determines that the activity would not pose a significant risk to the DIF. These restrictions have not had, and are not currently expected to have, a material impact on the operations of the Bank.
Insider Transactions. The Bank is subject to certain restrictions imposed by federal law on “covered transactions” between the Bank and its “affiliates.” The Company is an affiliate of the Bank for purposes of these restrictions, and covered transactions subject to the restrictions include extensions of credit to the Company, investments in the stock or other securities of the Company and the acceptance of the stock or other securities of the Company as collateral for loans made by the Bank. The Dodd-Frank Act enhanced the requirements for certain transactions with affiliates, including an expansion of the definition of “covered transactions” and an increase in the amount of time for which collateral requirements regarding covered transactions must be maintained.
Certain limitations and reporting requirements are also placed on extensions of credit by the Bank to its directors and officers, to directors and officers of the Company and its subsidiaries, to principal shareholders of the Company and to “related interests” of such directors, officers and principal shareholders. In addition, federal law and regulations may affect the terms upon which any person who is a director or officer of the Company or the Bank, or a principal shareholder of the Company, may obtain credit from banks with which the Bank maintains a correspondent relationship.
Safety and Soundness Standards/Risk Management. The federal banking agencies have adopted operational and managerial standards to promote the safety and soundness of FDIC-insured institutions. The standards apply to internal controls, information systems, internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth, compensation, fees and benefits, asset quality and earnings.
In general, the safety and soundness standards prescribe the goals to be achieved in each area, and each institution is responsible for establishing its own procedures to achieve those goals. While regulatory standards do not have the force of law, if an institution operates in an unsafe and unsound manner, the FDIC-insured institution’s primary federal regulator may require
the institution to submit a plan for achieving and maintaining compliance. If an FDIC-insured institution fails to submit an acceptable compliance plan, or fails in any material respect to implement a compliance plan that has been accepted by its primary federal regulator, the regulator is required to issue an order directing the institution to cure the deficiency. Until the deficiency cited in the regulator’s order is cured, the regulator may restrict the FDIC-insured institution’s rate of growth, require the FDIC-insured institution to increase its capital, restrict the rates the institution pays on deposits or require the institution to take any action the regulator deems appropriate under the circumstances. Noncompliance with safety and soundness may also constitute grounds for other enforcement action by the federal bank regulatory agencies, including cease and desist orders and civil money penalty assessments.
During the past decade, the bank regulatory agencies have increasingly emphasized the importance of sound risk management processes and strong internal controls when evaluating the activities of the FDIC-insured institutions they supervise. Properly managing risks has been identified as critical to the conduct of safe and sound banking activities and has become even more important as new technologies, product innovation, and the size and speed of financial transactions have changed the nature of banking markets. The agencies have identified a spectrum of risks facing a banking institution including, but not limited to, credit, market, liquidity, operational, legal, and reputational risk. In particular, recent regulatory pronouncements have focused on operational risk, which arises from the potential that inadequate information systems, operational problems, breaches in internal controls, fraud, or unforeseen catastrophes will result in unexpected losses. New products and services, third-party risk and cybersecurity are critical sources of operational risk that FDIC-insured institutions are expected to address in the current environment. The Bank is expected to have active board and senior management oversight; adequate policies, procedures, and limits; adequate risk measurement, monitoring, and management information systems; and comprehensive internal controls.
Branching Authority. Iowa banks, such as the Bank, have the authority under Iowa law to establish branches anywhere in the State of Iowa, subject to receipt of all required regulatory approvals. The establishment of new interstate branches has historically been permitted only in those states the laws of which expressly authorize such expansion. The Dodd-Frank Act permits well-capitalized and well-managed banks to establish new interstate branches or the acquisition of individual branches of a bank in another state (rather than the acquisition of an out-of-state bank in its entirety) without impediments. Federal law permits state and national banks to merge with banks in other states subject to: (i) regulatory approval; (ii) federal and state deposit concentration limits; and (iii) state law limitations requiring the merging bank to have been in existence for a minimum period of time (not to exceed five years) prior to the merger.
Transaction Account Reserves. Federal Reserve regulations require FDIC-insured institutions to maintain reserves against their transaction accounts (primarily NOW and regular checking accounts). For 2019, the first $16.3 million of otherwise reservable balances are exempt from reserves and have a zero percent reserve requirement; for transaction accounts aggregating between $16.3 million to $124.2 million, the reserve requirement is 3% of those transaction account balances; and for net transaction accounts in excess of $124.2 million, the reserve requirement is 10% of the aggregate amount of total transaction account balances in excess of $124.2 million. These reserve requirements are subject to annual adjustment by the Federal Reserve.
Community Reinvestment Act Requirements. The CRA requires the Bank to have a continuing and affirmative obligation in a safe and sound manner to help meet the credit needs of the entire community, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. Federal regulators regularly assess the Bank’s record of meeting the credit needs of its communities. Applications for additional acquisitions would be affected by the evaluation of the Bank’s effectiveness in meeting its CRA requirements.
Anti-Money Laundering. The USA Patriot Act is designed to deny terrorists and criminals the ability to obtain access to the U.S. financial system and has significant implications for FDIC-insured institutions, brokers, dealers and other businesses involved in the transfer of money. The USA Patriot Act mandates financial services companies to have policies and procedures with respect to measures designed to address any or all of the following matters: (i) customer identification programs; (ii) money laundering; (iii) terrorist financing; (iv) identifying and reporting suspicious activities and currency transactions; (v) currency crimes; and (vi) cooperation between FDIC-insured institutions and law enforcement authorities.
Privacy and Cybersecurity. The Bank is subject to many U.S. federal and state laws and regulations governing requirements for maintaining policies and procedures to protect non-public confidential information of their customers. These laws require the Bank to periodically disclose their privacy policies and practices relating to sharing such information and permit consumers to opt out of their ability to share information with unaffiliated third parties under certain circumstances. They also impact the Bank’s ability to share certain information with affiliates and non-affiliates for marketing and/or non-marketing purposes, or to contact customers with marketing offers. In addition, the Bank is required to implement a comprehensive information security program that includes administrative, technical, and physical safeguards to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer records and information. These security and privacy policies and procedures, for the protection of personal and confidential information, are in effect across all businesses and geographic locations.
Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate. Concentration risk exists when FDIC-insured institutions deploy too many assets to any one industry or segment. A concentration in commercial real estate is one example of regulatory concern. The interagency Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate Lending, Sound Risk Management Practices guidance (“CRE Guidance”) provides supervisory criteria, including the following numerical indicators, to assist bank examiners in identifying banks with potentially significant commercial real estate loan concentrations that may warrant greater supervisory scrutiny: (i) commercial real estate loans exceeding 300% of capital and increasing 50% or more in the preceding three years; or (ii) construction and land development loans exceeding 100% of capital. The CRE Guidance does not limit banks’ levels of commercial real estate lending activities, but rather guides institutions in developing risk management practices and levels of capital that are commensurate with the level and nature of their commercial real estate concentrations. On December 18, 2015, the federal banking agencies issued a statement to reinforce prudent risk-management practices related to CRE lending, having observed substantial growth in many CRE asset and lending markets, increased competitive pressures, rising CRE concentrations in banks, and an easing of CRE underwriting standards. The federal bank agencies reminded FDIC-insured institutions to maintain underwriting discipline and exercise prudent risk-management practices to identify, measure, monitor, and manage the risks arising from CRE lending. In addition, FDIC-insured institutions must maintain capital commensurate with the level and nature of their CRE concentration risk.
As of December 31, 2018, the Bank did not exceed these guidelines.
Consumer Financial Services. The historical structure of federal consumer protection regulation applicable to all providers of consumer financial products and services changed significantly on July 21, 2011, when the CFPB commenced operations to supervise and enforce consumer protection laws. The CFPB has broad rulemaking authority for a wide range of consumer protection laws that apply to all providers of consumer products and services, including the Bank, as well as the authority to prohibit “unfair, deceptive or abusive” acts and practices. The CFPB has examination and enforcement authority over providers with more than $10 billion in assets. FDIC-insured institutions with $10 billion or less in assets, like the Bank, continue to be examined by their applicable bank regulators.
Because abuses in connection with residential mortgages were a significant factor contributing to the financial crisis, many new rules issued by the CFPB and required by the Dodd-Frank Act addressed mortgage and mortgage-related products, their underwriting, origination, servicing and sales. The Dodd-Frank Act significantly expanded underwriting requirements applicable to loans secured by 1-4 family residential real property and augmented federal law combating predatory lending practices. In addition to numerous disclosure requirements, the Dodd‑Frank Act imposed new standards for mortgage loan originations on all lenders, including banks and savings associations, in an effort to strongly encourage lenders to verify a borrower’s ability to repay, while also establishing a presumption of compliance for certain “qualified mortgages.” The Regulatory Relief Act provided relief in connection with mortgages for banks with assets of less than $10 billion, and, as a result, mortgages the Bank makes are now considered to be qualified mortgages if they are held in portfolio for the life of the loan.
The CFPB’s rules have not had a significant impact on our operations, except for higher compliance costs.
Special Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This report contains certain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of such term in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. We and our representatives may, from time to time, make written or oral statements that are “forward-looking” and provide information other than historical information. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results to be materially different from any results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement. These factors include, among other things, the factors listed below.
Forward-looking statements, which may be based upon beliefs, expectations and assumptions of our management and on information currently available to management, are generally identifiable by the use of words such as “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “plans,” “intend,” “project,” “estimate,” “forecast,” “may” or similar expressions. These forward-looking statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, these statements. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date made. Additionally, we undertake no obligation to update any statement in light of new information or future events, except as required under federal securities law.
Our ability to predict results or the actual effect of future plans or strategies is inherently uncertain. Factors that could have an impact on our ability to achieve operating results, growth plan goals and future prospects include, but are not limited to, the following:
credit quality deterioration or pronounced and sustained reduction in real estate market values could cause an increase in our allowance for loan losses and a reduction in net earnings;
the risks of mergers, including with ATBancorp, including, without limitation, the related time and costs of implementing such transactions, integrating operations as part of these transactions and possible failures to achieve expected gains, revenue growth and/or expense savings from such transactions;
our management’s ability to reduce and effectively manage interest rate risk and the impact of interest rates in general on the volatility of our net interest income;
changes in the economic environment, competition, or other factors that may affect our ability to acquire loans or influence the anticipated growth rate of loans and deposits and the quality of the loan portfolio and loan and deposit pricing;
fluctuations in the value of our investment securities;
governmental monetary and fiscal policies;
legislative and regulatory changes, including changes in banking, securities, trade and tax laws and regulations and their application by our regulators;
the ability to attract and retain key executives and employees experienced in banking and financial services;
the sufficiency of the allowance for loan losses to absorb the amount of actual losses inherent in our existing loan portfolio;
our ability to adapt successfully to technological changes to compete effectively in the marketplace;
credit risks and risks from concentrations (by geographic area and by industry) within our loan portfolio;
the effects of competition from other commercial banks, thrifts, mortgage banking firms, consumer finance companies, credit unions, securities brokerage firms, insurance companies, money market and other mutual funds, and other financial institutions operating in our markets or elsewhere or providing similar services;
the failure of assumptions underlying the establishment of allowances for loan losses and estimation of values of collateral and various financial assets and liabilities;
volatility of rate-sensitive deposits;
operational risks, including data processing system failures or fraud;
asset/liability matching risks and liquidity risks;
the costs, effects and outcomes of existing or future litigation;
changes in general economic or industry conditions, nationally, internationally, or in the communities in which we conduct business;
changes in accounting policies and practices, as may be adopted by state and federal regulatory agencies and the FASB;
war or terrorist activities which may cause deterioration in the economy or cause instability in credit markets;
the effects of cyber-attacks;
the imposition of tariffs or other domestic or international government policies impacting the value of agricultural or other products of our borrowers; and
other factors and risks described under “Risk Factors” herein.
We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by the foregoing cautionary statements. Because of these risks and other uncertainties, our actual future results, performance or achievement, or industry results, may be materially different from the results indicated by these forward-looking statements. In addition, our past results of operations are not necessarily indicative of our future results.
An investment in our securities is subject to risks inherent in our business. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with all of the other information included in this report. In addition to the risks and uncertainties described below, other risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The value or market price of our securities could decline due to any of these identified or other risks, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
Economic and Market Risks
Our business is concentrated in and largely dependent upon the continued growth and welfare of the Iowa City and Minneapolis/St. Paul markets.
We operate primarily in the Iowa City, Iowa and Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota markets and their surrounding communities in the upper-Midwest. As a result, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows are significantly
impacted by changes in the economic conditions in those areas. Our success depends to a significant extent upon the business activity, population, income levels, deposits and real estate activity in these markets. Although our customers’ business and financial interests may extend well beyond these market areas, adverse economic conditions that affect these market areas could reduce our growth rate, affect the ability of our customers to repay their loans to us, affect the value of collateral underlying loans and generally affect our financial condition and results of operations. Because of our geographic concentration, we are less able than other regional or national financial institutions to diversify our credit risks across multiple markets.
Adverse weather affecting the markets we serve could hurt our business and prospects for growth.
Substantially all of our business is conducted in the states of Iowa and Minnesota, and after the anticipated merger with ATBancorp, Wisconsin, and a significant portion is conducted in rural communities. The upper-Midwest economy, in general, is heavily dependent on agriculture and therefore the regional economy, and particularly the economies of the rural communities that we serve, can be greatly affected by severe weather conditions, including hail, droughts, storms, tornadoes and flooding. Unfavorable weather conditions may decrease agricultural productivity or could result in damage to our branch locations or the property of our customers, all of which could adversely affect the local economy, which would negatively affect our profitability.
We are subject to interest rate risk, which could adversely affect our financial condition and profitability.
Shifts in short-term interest rates may reduce net interest income, which is the principal component of our earnings. Net interest income is the difference between the amounts received by us on our interest-earning assets and the interest paid by us on our interest-bearing liabilities. When interest rates rise, the rate of interest we pay on our liabilities such as deposits, may rise more quickly than the rate of interest that we receive on our interest bearing assets, such as loans, which could cause our profits to decrease. The impact on earnings can be more adverse when the slope of the yield curve flattens, that is, when short-term interest rates increase more than long-term interest rates or when long-term interest rates decrease more than short-term interest rates.
Changes in interest rates also can affect the value of loans, securities and other assets. An increase in interest rates that adversely affects the ability of borrowers to pay the principal or interest on loans may lead to an increase in nonperforming assets and a reduction of income recognized, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows. Further, when we place a loan on nonaccrual status, we reverse any accrued but unpaid interest receivable, which decreases interest income. Subsequently, we continue to have a cost to fund the loan, which is reflected as interest expense, without any interest income to offset the associated funding expense. Thus, an increase in the amount of nonperforming assets would have an adverse impact on net interest income.
Rising interest rates will likely result in a decline in value of our fixed-rate debt securities. Any unrealized losses resulting from holding available for sale securities are recognized in other comprehensive income (or net income, if the decline is other-than- temporary), and reduce total shareholders’ equity. Unrealized losses do not negatively impact our regulatory capital ratios; however, tangible common equity and the associated ratios used by many investors would be reduced. If debt securities in an unrealized loss position are sold, such losses become realized and will reduce our regulatory capital ratios.
In late 2015, the Federal Reserve’s Open Market Committee began the process of raising short-term interest rates from near-zero levels, and the Federal Reserve has raised the target federal funds rate by 100 basis points in 2018 and 75 basis points in 2017. If short-term interest rates continue to increase and long-term interest rates do not rise, or increase but at a slower rate, we could experience net interest margin compression as our rates on interest-earning assets decline measured relative to rates on our interest-bearing liabilities. Any such occurrence could have a material adverse effect on our net interest income and on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We measure interest rate risk under various rate scenarios and using specific criteria and assumptions. A summary of this process, along with the results of our net interest income simulations, is included at Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk under “Interest Rate Risk.” Although we believe our current level of interest rate sensitivity is reasonable and effectively managed, significant fluctuations in interest rates may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to risk concerning the discontinuance of the London Inter-bank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”).
In July 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority (the authority that regulates LIBOR) announced it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. The Alternative Reference Rates Committee ("ARRC") has proposed that the Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR") is the rate that represents best practice as the alternative to USD-LIBOR for use in derivatives and other financial contracts that are currently indexed to USD-LIBOR. ARRC has proposed a paced market transition plan to SOFR from USD-LIBOR, and organizations are currently working on industry wide and company specific
transition plans as it relates to derivatives and cash markets exposed to USD-LIBOR. The Company has material contracts that are indexed to USD-LIBOR and is monitoring this activity and evaluating the related risks.
Credit and Lending Risks
We must manage our credit risk effectively.
There are risks inherent in making any loan, including risks inherent in dealing with individual borrowers, risks of nonpayment, risks resulting from uncertainties as to the future value of collateral and cash flows available to service debt and risks resulting from changes in economic and industry conditions. We attempt to minimize our credit risk through prudent loan application approval procedures, careful monitoring of the concentration of our loans within specific industries and periodic independent reviews of outstanding loans by our credit review department. We periodically examine our credit process and implement changes to improve our procedures and standards. However, we cannot assure you that such approval and monitoring procedures will reduce these credit risks. If the overall economic climate in the United States, generally, or our market areas, specifically, declines, or even if it does not, our borrowers may experience difficulties in repaying their loans, and the level of nonperforming loans, charge-offs and delinquencies could rise and require increases in the provision for loan losses, which would cause our net income and return on equity to decrease.
The small to mid-sized businesses that we lend to may have fewer resources to weather adverse business developments, which may impair a borrower’s ability to repay a loan.
We primarily serve the banking and financial services needs of small to mid-sized businesses. These businesses generally have fewer financial resources in terms of capital or borrowing capacity than larger entities, may be more vulnerable to economic downturns, and may experience volatility in operating results, any of which may impair a borrower’s ability to repay a loan. In addition, the success of a small and medium-sized business often depends on the management talents and efforts of one or two people or a small group of people, and the death, disability or resignation of one or more of these people could have a material adverse impact on the business and its ability to repay its loan. Should the economic conditions negatively impact the markets in which we operate, our borrowers may experience financial difficulties, and the level of nonperforming loans, charge-offs and delinquencies could rise, which could negatively impact our business.
Our loan portfolio has a significant concentration of commercial real estate loans, which involve risks specific to real estate value.
Commercial real estate lending comprises a significant portion of our lending business. Specifically, commercial real estate loans were $1.27 billion, or approximately 52.8% of our total loan portfolio, as of December 31, 2018. Of this amount, $380.2 million, or approximately 15.8% of our total loan portfolio, are loans secured by owner-occupied property, and $888.4 million, or approximately 37.0% of our loan portfolio, are secured by non-owner occupied property. The market value of real estate securing our commercial real estate loans can fluctuate significantly in a short period of time as a result of market conditions in the geographic area in which the real estate is located. Although a significant portion of such loans is secured by real estate as a secondary form of repayment, adverse developments affecting real estate values in one or more of our markets could increase the credit risk associated with our loan portfolio. Additionally, real estate lending typically involves higher loan principal amounts, and the repayment of the loans generally is dependent, in large part, on sufficient income from the properties securing the loans to cover operating expenses and debt service. Economic events or governmental regulations outside of the control of the borrower or lender could negatively impact the future cash flow and market values of the affected properties.
If problems develop in the commercial real estate sector, particularly within one or more of our markets, the value of collateral securing our commercial real estate loans could decline. In such case, we may not be able to realize the amount of security that we anticipated at the time of originating the loan, which could cause us to increase our provision for loan losses and adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and/or capital. In light of the continued general uncertainty that exists in the economy and credit markets nationally, we may experience deterioration in the performance of our commercial real estate loan customers.
Commercial, industrial and agricultural loans make up a significant portion of our loan portfolio.
Commercial, industrial and agricultural loans (including credit cards and commercially related overdrafts) were $630.1 million, or approximately 26.3% of our total loan portfolio, as of December 31, 2018. Our commercial loans are primarily made based on the identified cash flow of the borrower and secondarily on the underlying collateral provided by the borrower. Most often, this collateral is accounts receivable, inventory and equipment. Credit support provided by the borrower for most of these loans and the probability of repayment is based on the liquidation value of the pledged collateral and enforcement of a personal
guarantee, if any exists. As a result, in the case of loans secured by accounts receivable, the availability of funds for the repayment of these loans may be substantially dependent on the ability of the borrower to collect amounts due from its customers. The collateral securing these loans may depreciate over time, may be difficult to appraise and may fluctuate in value based on the success of the business. In addition, if the U.S. economy declines, this could harm the businesses of our commercial and industrial customers and reduce the value of the collateral securing these loans.
Payments on agricultural loans are dependent on the successful operation or management of the farm property. The success of the farm may be affected by many factors outside the control of the borrower, including adverse weather conditions that prevent the planting of a crop or limit crop yields (such as hail, drought and floods), loss of livestock due to disease or other factors, declines in market prices for agricultural products (both domestically and internationally) and the impact of government regulations (including changes in price supports, subsidies, tariffs, and environmental regulations). In addition, many farms are dependent on a limited number of key individuals whose injury or death may significantly affect the successful operation of the farm. If the cash flow from a farming operation is diminished, the borrower’s ability to repay the loan may be impaired. The primary crops in our market areas are corn and soybeans. Accordingly, adverse circumstances affecting these crops could have an adverse effect on our agricultural portfolio. Likewise, agricultural operating loans involve a greater degree of risk than lending on residential properties, particularly in the case of loans that are unsecured or secured by rapidly depreciating assets such as farm equipment or assets such as livestock or crops. In these cases, any repossessed collateral for a defaulted loan may not provide an adequate source of repayment of the outstanding loan balance as a result of the greater likelihood of damage, loss or depreciation.
Our allowance for loan losses may prove to be insufficient to absorb losses in our loan portfolio.
We establish our reserve or “allowance” for loan losses at a level considered appropriate by management to absorb probable loan losses based on an analysis of the portfolio, market environment and other factors we deem relevant. The allowance for loan losses represents our estimate of probable losses in the portfolio at each balance sheet date and is based upon relevant information available to us. The allowance contains an allocation for probable losses that have been identified relating to specific borrowing relationships, as well as probable losses inherent in the loan portfolio and credit undertakings that are not specifically identified. Additions to the allowance for loan losses, which are charged to earnings through the provision for loan losses, are determined based on a variety of factors, including an analysis of the loan portfolio, historical loss experience and an evaluation of current economic conditions in our market areas. The determination of the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses inherently involves a high degree of subjectivity and requires us to make significant estimates of current credit risks and future trends, all of which may undergo material changes. Although management has established an allowance for loan losses it believes is adequate to absorb probable and reasonably estimable losses in our loan portfolio, the allowance may not be adequate. We could sustain credit losses that are significantly higher than the amount of our allowance for loan losses. Higher loan losses could arise for a variety of reasons, including changes in economic, operating and other conditions within our markets, as well as changes in the financial condition, cash flows, and operations of our borrowers.
At December 31, 2018, our allowance for loan losses as a percentage of total gross loans was 1.22% and as a percentage of total nonperforming loans was approximately 114.60%. Although management believes that the allowance for loan losses is appropriate to absorb probable loan losses on any existing loans that may become uncollectible, we cannot predict loan losses with certainty, and we cannot assure you that our allowance for loan losses will prove sufficient to cover actual loan losses in the future. We may be required to make additional provisions for loan losses in the future to supplement the allowance for loan losses, either due to management’s decision to do so or because our banking regulators require us to do so. If we experience significant charge-offs in future periods or charge-offs in future periods exceed the allowance for loan losses, we may need additional provisions to replenish the allowance for loan losses. An increase in the allowance for loan losses will result in a decrease in net income and, most likely, capital, and may have a material negative impact on our financial condition and results of operations. Loan losses in excess of our reserves may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Nonperforming assets take significant time to resolve and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition, and could result in further losses in the future.
As of December 31, 2018, our nonperforming loans (which consist of nonaccrual loans, loans past due 90 days or more and still accruing interest and loans modified under troubled debt restructurings, and excluded purchased credit impaired loans) totaled $25.6 million, or 1.07% of our loan portfolio, and our nonperforming assets (which include nonperforming loans plus foreclosed assets, net) totaled $26.1 million, or 1.09% of loans. In addition, we had $5.6 million in accruing loans (not included in the nonperforming loan totals) that were 31-89 days delinquent as of December 31, 2018.
Our nonperforming assets adversely affect our net income in various ways. We do not record interest income on nonaccrual loans or foreclosed assets, thereby adversely affecting our net income and returns on assets and equity, increasing our loan administration costs and adversely affecting our efficiency ratio. When we take collateral in foreclosure and similar proceedings,
we are required to mark the collateral to its then-fair market value, which may result in a loss. These nonperforming loans and foreclosed assets also increase our risk profile and the capital our regulators believe is appropriate in light of such risks. The resolution of nonperforming assets requires significant time commitments from management and can be detrimental to the performance of their other responsibilities. If we experience increases in nonperforming loans and nonperforming assets, our net interest income may be negatively impacted and our loan administration costs could increase, each of which could have an adverse effect on our net income and related ratios, such as return on assets and equity.
We may encounter issues with environmental law compliance if we take possession, through foreclosure or otherwise, of the real property that secures a loan.
A significant portion of our loan portfolio is secured by real property. In the ordinary course of business, we may foreclose on and take title to properties securing certain loans. In doing so, there is a risk that hazardous or toxic substances could be found on these properties. If hazardous or toxic substances are found, we may be liable for remediation costs, as well as for personal injury and property damage. Environmental laws may require us to incur substantial expenses and may materially reduce the affected property's value or limit our ability to use or sell the affected property. In addition, future laws or more stringent interpretations or enforcement policies with respect to existing laws may increase our exposure to environmental liability. The remediation costs and any other financial liabilities associated with an environmental hazard could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Capital & Liquidity Risks
Liquidity risks could affect operations and jeopardize our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Liquidity is essential to our business. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, the sale of loans and other sources could have a substantial negative effect on our liquidity. Our most important source of funds consists of customer deposits. Deposit balances can decrease when customers perceive alternative investments, such as the stock market, provide a better risk/return trade-off. If customers move money out of bank deposits and into other investments, we could lose a relatively low cost source of funds, which would require us to seek other, potentially higher cost funding alternatives. Other primary sources of funds consist of cash from operations, investment securities maturities and sales, and funds from sales of our stock. Additional liquidity is provided by brokered deposits, bank lines of credit, repurchase agreements and the ability to borrow from the Federal Reserve Bank and the FHLB. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance or capitalize our activities or on terms that are acceptable to us could be impaired by factors that affect us directly or the financial services industry or economy in general, such as disruptions in the financial markets or negative views and expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry.
Any decline in available funding could adversely impact our ability to originate loans, invest in securities, pay our expenses, pay dividends to our shareholders, or fulfill obligations such as repaying our borrowings or meeting deposit withdrawal demands, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our liquidity, business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may desire or be required to raise additional capital in the future, but that capital may not be available.
We are required by federal and state regulatory authorities to maintain adequate levels of capital to support our operations. We intend to grow our business organically and to explore opportunities to grow our business by taking advantage of attractive acquisition opportunities, and such growth plans may require us to raise additional capital to ensure that we have adequate levels of capital to support such growth on top of our current operations. In order to accommodate future capital needs we maintain a universal shelf registration statement, which allowed for future sale up to $75 million of securities. During the first and second quarters of 2017, we utilized the shelf registration and issued an additional 750,000 shares of common stock resulting in $24.4 million of new capital for the Company, net of expenses, leaving approximately $49.3 million of securities available to be issued under our shelf registration statement. Our ability to raise additional capital will depend on conditions in the capital markets, economic conditions and a number of other factors, including investor perceptions regarding the banking industry, market conditions and governmental activities, and on our financial condition and performance. Accordingly, we cannot assure you of our ability to raise additional capital, if needed or desired, on terms acceptable to us. If we cannot raise additional capital when needed or desired, our ability to further expand our operations through internal growth or acquisitions could be materially impaired.
Downgrades in the credit rating of one or more insurers that provide credit enhancement for our state and municipal securities portfolio may have an adverse impact on the market for, and valuation of, these types of securities.
We invest in tax-exempt and taxable state and local municipal securities, some of which are insured by monoline insurers. As of December 31, 2018, we had $253.1 million of municipal securities (recorded values), which represented 41.3% of our total securities portfolio. Following the onset of the financial crisis, several of these insurers came under scrutiny by rating agencies.
Even though management generally purchases municipal securities on the overall credit strength of the issuer, the reduction in the credit rating of an insurer may negatively impact the market for and valuation of our investment securities. Such a downgrade could adversely affect our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to pay dividends is subject to certain limitations and restrictions, and there is no guarantee that we will be able to continue paying the same level of dividends in the future that we have paid in the past or that we will be able to pay future dividends at all.
Our ability to pay dividends is limited by regulatory restrictions and the need to maintain sufficient consolidated capital. The ability of the Bank to pay dividends to us is limited by its obligations to maintain sufficient capital and liquidity and by other general restrictions on dividends that are applicable to the Bank, including the requirement under the Iowa Banking Act that the Bank may not pay dividends in excess of its undivided profits. If these regulatory requirements are not met, the Bank will not be able to pay dividends to us, and we may be unable to pay dividends on our common stock.
In addition, as a bank holding company, our ability to declare and pay dividends is subject to the guidelines of the Federal Reserve regarding capital adequacy and dividends. The Federal Reserve guidelines generally require us to review the effects of the cash payment of dividends on common stock and other Tier 1 capital instruments (i.e., perpetual preferred stock and trust preferred debt) in light of our earnings, capital adequacy and financial condition. As a general matter, the Federal Reserve indicates that the board of directors of a bank holding company (including a financial holding company) should eliminate, defer or significantly reduce the company’s dividends if:
the company’s net income available to shareholders for the past four quarters, net of dividends previously paid during that period, is not sufficient to fully fund the dividends;
the prospective rate of earnings retention is inconsistent with the company’s capital needs and overall current and prospective financial condition; or
the company will not meet, or is in danger of not meeting, its minimum regulatory capital adequacy ratios.
As of December 31, 2018, we had $23.9 million of junior subordinated debentures held by three statutory business trusts that we control. Interest payments on the debentures, which totaled $1.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, must be paid before we pay dividends on our capital stock, including our common stock. We have the right to defer interest payments on the debentures for up to 20 consecutive quarters. However, if we elect to defer interest payments, all deferred interest must be paid before we may pay dividends on our capital stock.
We have counterparty risk and therefore we may be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions.
Our ability to engage in routine funding and other transactions could be negatively affected by the actions and the soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services institutions are generally interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, credit or other relationships. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties and regularly engage in transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including commercial banks, brokers and dealers, investment banks and other institutional customers. Many of these transactions may expose us to credit or other risks if another financial institution experiences adverse circumstances. In certain circumstances, the collateral that we hold may be insufficient to fully cover the risk that a counterparty defaults on its obligations, which may cause us to experience losses that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Competitive and Strategic Risks
We face intense competition in all phases of our business from banks and other financial institutions.
The banking and financial services businesses in our markets are highly competitive. Our competitors include large regional banks, local community banks, savings and loan associations, securities and brokerage companies, mortgage companies, insurance companies, finance companies, money market mutual funds, small local credit unions as well as large aggressive and expansion-minded credit unions, and other non-bank financial services providers. Many of these competitors are not subject to the same regulatory restrictions as we are. Many of our unregulated competitors compete across geographic boundaries and are able to provide customers with a competitive alternative to traditional banking services.
Increased competition in our markets may result in a decrease in the amounts of our loans and deposits, reduced spreads between loan rates and deposit rates or loan terms that are more favorable to the borrower. Any of these results could have a material adverse effect on our ability to grow and remain profitable. If increased competition causes us to significantly discount the interest rates we offer on loans or increase the amount we pay on deposits, our net interest income could be adversely impacted.
If increased competition causes us to modify our underwriting standards, we could be exposed to higher losses from lending activities. Additionally, many of our competitors are much larger in total assets and capitalization, have greater access to capital markets, have larger lending limits and offer a broader range of financial services than we can offer.
If the merger with ATBancorp is completed, difficulties in combining the operations of ATBancorp and the Company may prevent the Company from achieving the expected benefits from the merger.
The Company may not be able to achieve the strategic objectives and operating efficiencies it hopes to achieve in the merger. The anticipated benefits of the merger may not be fully realized, may not be realized at all or may take longer to realize than expected. The success of the merger will depend on a number of factors, including the Company’s ability to:
integrate the operations of ATBancorp and the Company, including successfully integrating and combining the technology, financial, credit, security and legal reporting systems and controls of the Company and ATBancorp;
maintain existing relationships with depositors so as to minimize withdrawals of deposits after the merger;
maintain and enhance existing relationships with borrowers so as to limit unanticipated losses from loans of ATBancorp’s banking subsidiaries and the Bank;
maintain existing relationships of key employees of ATBancorp;
control the incremental non-interest expense so as to maintain overall operating efficiencies; and
compete effectively in the communities served by ATBancorp and the Company.
If the merger is not completed, the Company will have incurred substantial expenses without realizing the expected benefits of the merger.
If the merger is delayed or not consummated, the ongoing business, financial condition and results of operations of the Company may be materially adversely affected, and the market price or value of the Company’s common stock may decline significantly, particularly to the extent that the current market price reflects a market assumption that the merger will be consummated. In addition, the Company has incurred and will incur substantial expenses in connection with the negotiation and completion of the transactions contemplated by the merger agreement with ATBancorp, as well as the costs and expenses of filing certain required documents with the SEC in connection with the merger. If the merger is not completed, the Company would have to recognize these expenses without realizing the expected benefits of the merger. Any of the foregoing, or other risks arising in connection with the failure of or delay in consummating the merger, including the diversion of management attention from pursuing other opportunities and the constraints in the merger agreement on the ability to make significant changes to the Company’s ongoing business during the pendency of the merger, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
If the Company fails to successfully integrate ATBancorp into its internal control over financial reporting or if the internal control of ATBancorp over financial reporting were found to be ineffective, the integrity of the Company’s financial reporting could be compromised which could result in a material adverse effect on the Company’s reported financial results or in the determination of the effectiveness of the Company’s internal controls over financial reporting.
As a private company, ATBancorp has not been subject to the requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to internal control over financial reporting. The integration of ATBancorp into the Company’s internal control over financial reporting will require significant time and resources from management and other personnel and will increase compliance costs. If the Company fails to successfully integrate the operations of ATBancorp into its internal control over financial reporting, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting may not be effective. Failure to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s ability to accurately report its financial results and the market’s perception of its business and its stock price.
Consumers and businesses are increasingly using non-banks to complete their financial transactions, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Technology and other changes are allowing consumers and businesses to complete financial transactions that historically have involved banks through alternative methods. For example, the wide acceptance of Internet-based commerce has resulted in a number of alternative payment processing systems and lending platforms in which banks play only minor roles. Customers can now maintain funds in prepaid debit cards or digital currencies, and pay bills and transfer funds directly without the direct assistance of banks. The diminishing role of banks as financial intermediaries has resulted and could continue to result in the loss of fee income, as well as the loss of customer deposits and the related income generated from those deposits. The loss of these revenue streams and the potential loss of lower cost deposits as a source of funds could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have a continuing need for technological change, and we may not have the resources to effectively implement new technology.
The financial services industry continues to undergo rapid technological changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. In addition to enabling us to better serve our customers, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and the potential for cost reduction. Our future success will depend in part upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands for convenience as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations as we continue to grow our market share. Many of our larger competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. As a result, they may be able to offer additional or superior products to those that we will be able to offer, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage. Accordingly, we cannot provide you with assurance that we will be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing such products and services to our customers.
We may be adversely affected by risks associated with completed and potential acquisitions, including execution risks, failure to realize anticipated transaction benefits, and failure to overcome integration risks, which could adversely affect our growth and profitability.
We plan to continue to grow our businesses organically but remain open to considering potential bank or other acquisition opportunities that make financial and strategic sense. In the event that we do pursue acquisitions, such as the pending acquisition of ATBancorp, we may have difficulty executing on acquisitions and may not realize the anticipated benefits of any transaction we complete. Any of the foregoing matters could materially and adversely affect us.
In any acquisition that we complete, we may fail to realize some or all of the anticipated transaction benefits if the integration process takes longer or is more costly than expected or otherwise fails to meet our expectations. Acquisition activities could be material to our business and involve a number of risks, including the following:
We may incur time and expense associated with identifying and evaluating potential acquisitions and negotiating potential transactions, resulting in our attention being diverted from the operation of our existing business.
We are exposed to potential asset and credit quality risks and unknown or contingent liabilities of the banks or businesses we acquire. If these issues or liabilities exceed our estimates, our earnings, capital and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.
The acquisition of other entities generally requires integration of systems, procedures and personnel of the acquired entity. This integration process is complicated and time consuming and can also be disruptive to the customers and employees of the acquired business and our business. If the integration process is not conducted successfully, we may not realize the anticipated economic benefits of acquisitions within the expected time frame, or ever, and we may lose customers or employees of the acquired business. We may also experience greater than anticipated customer losses even if the integration process is successful.
To finance an acquisition, we may borrow funds or pursue other forms of financing, such as issuing voting and/or non-voting common stock or convertible preferred stock, which may have high dividend rights or may be highly dilutive to holders of our common stock, thereby increasing our leverage and diminishing our liquidity, or issuing capital stock, which could dilute the interests of our existing shareholders.
We may be unsuccessful in realizing the anticipated benefits from acquisitions. For example, we may not be successful in realizing anticipated cost savings. We also may not be successful in preventing disruptions in service to existing customer relationships of the acquired institution, which could lead to a loss in revenues.
In addition to the foregoing, we may face additional risks in acquisitions to the extent we acquire new lines of business or new products, or enter new geographic areas, in which we have little or no current experience, especially if we lose key employees of the acquired operations. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in overcoming these risks or any other problems encountered in connection with acquisitions. Our inability to overcome risks associated with acquisitions could have an adverse effect on our ability to successfully implement our acquisition growth strategy and grow our business and profitability.
Accounting and Tax Risks
We are subject to changes in accounting principles, policies or guidelines.
Our financial performance is impacted by accounting principles, policies and guidelines. Some of these policies require the use of estimates and assumptions that may affect the value of our assets or liabilities and financial results. Some of our accounting policies are critical because they require management to make difficult, subjective and complex judgments about matters that are inherently uncertain and because it is likely that materially different amounts would be reported under different conditions or using
different assumptions. If such estimates or assumptions underlying our financial statements are incorrect, we may experience material losses.
From time to time, the FASB and the SEC change the financial accounting and reporting standards or the interpretation of those standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. These changes are beyond our control, can be difficult to predict and could materially impact how we report our financial condition and results of operations. Changes in these standards are continuously occurring, and given recent economic conditions, more drastic changes may occur. The implementation of such changes could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
A new accounting standard may require us to increase our allowance for loan losses and may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
The FASB has adopted a new accounting standard that will be effective for the Company and the Bank for our first fiscal year after December 15, 2019. This standard, referred to as Current Expected Credit Loss, or CECL, will require financial institutions to determine periodic estimates of lifetime expected credit losses on loans, and recognize the expected credit losses as allowances for loan losses. This will change the current method of providing allowances for loan losses that are probable, which may require us to increase our allowance for loan losses, and to greatly increase the types of data we will need to collect and review to determine the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses. Any increase in our allowance for loan losses or expenses incurred to determine the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
The Company is subject to changes in tax law and may not realize tax benefits which could adversely affect our results of operations.
Changes in tax laws at national or state levels could have an effect on the Company’s short-term and long-term earnings. Tax law changes are both difficult to predict and are beyond the Company’s control. Changes in tax laws could affect the Company’s earnings as well as its customers’ financial positions, or both. On December 22, 2017, the President signed into law the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) which, effective January 2018, reduced the federal corporate tax rate as well as adjusted tax rates, deductions and exemptions for individuals and businesses alike. While the reduction in the corporate tax rate could benefit the Company long-term, the Company took a one-time, non-cash charge of $3.2 million in the fourth quarter of 2017 as a result of the revaluation of the Company’s net deferred tax position following the enactment of the Tax Act.
Deferred tax assets are designed to reduce subsequent period’s income tax expense and arise, in part, as a result of net loss carry-overs, and other book accounting to tax accounting differences including the allowance for loan losses, stock-based compensation, and deferred compensation. Such items are recorded as assets when it is anticipated the tax consequences will be recorded in future periods. A valuation allowance is established against a deferred tax asset when it is unlikely the future tax effects will be realized. Significant judgment by management about matters that are by nature uncertain is required to record a deferred tax asset and establish a valuation allowance.
In evaluating the need for a valuation allowance, the Company estimated future taxable income based on management forecasts and tax planning strategies that may be available to us. If future events differ significantly from our current forecasts, the Company may need to establish a valuation allowance against its net deferred tax assets, which would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, current portions of the net deferred tax assets relate to tax-effected state net operating loss carry-forwards, the utilization of which may be further limited in the event of certain material changes in the Company’s ownership.
In addition, changes in ownership could further limit the Company’s realization of deferred tax assets. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods prior to the expiration of the related net operating losses and the limitation of Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”). Section 382 of the Code contains rules that limit the ability of a company that undergoes an ownership change to utilize its net operating loss carry-forwards and certain built-in losses recognized in years after the ownership change. The Company issued a significant amount of common stock in connection with the acquisition of Central Bancshares, Inc. (“Central”) in 2015 and will issued a significant amount of common stock in connection with the in the proposed acquisition of ATBancorp. While the issuance of stock does not affect an ownership change under Section 382, it may make it more likely that an ownership change under Section 382 will occur in the future. If the Company undergoes an ownership change for purposes of Section 382 as a result of future transactions involving our common stock, our ability to use net operating loss carry-forwards, tax credit carry-forwards or net unrealized built-in losses at the time of ownership change would be subject to the limitations of Section 382. The limitation may affect the amount of the Company’s deferred income tax asset and, depending on the limitation, a portion of its built-in losses. Net operating loss carry-
forwards or tax credit carry-forwards could expire before the Company would be able to use them. This could adversely affect the Company’s financial position, results of operations and cash flow.
We face the risk of possible future goodwill impairment.
We performed a valuation analysis of our goodwill, $64.7 million related to our acquisition of Central, as of October 1, 2018, and also an additional valuation analysis of our goodwill at December 31, 2018, and neither analysis indicated any impairment existed. We will be required to perform additional goodwill impairment assessments on at least an annual basis, and perhaps more frequently, which could result in goodwill impairment charges. Any future goodwill impairment charge on the current goodwill balance, or future goodwill arising out of acquisitions that we are required to take, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations by reducing our net income or increasing our net losses.
We could recognize losses on securities held in our securities portfolio, particularly if interest rates increase or economic and market conditions deteriorate.
As of December 31, 2018, the fair value of our securities portfolio was approximately $609.4 million. Factors beyond our control can significantly influence the fair value of securities in our portfolio and can cause potential adverse changes to the fair value of these securities. For example, fixed-rate securities acquired by us are generally subject to decreases in market value when interest rates rise. Additional factors include, but are not limited to, rating agency downgrades of the securities, defaults by the issuer or individual mortgagors with respect to the underlying securities, and instability in the credit markets. Any of the foregoing factors could cause an other-than-temporary impairment in future periods and result in realized losses. The process for determining whether impairment is other-than-temporary usually requires subjective judgments about the future financial performance of the issuer and any collateral underlying the security in order to assess the probability of receiving all contractual principal and interest payments on the security. Because of changing economic and market conditions affecting interest rates, the financial condition of issuers of the securities and the performance of the underlying collateral, we may recognize realized and/ or unrealized losses in future periods, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to attract and retain management and key personnel may affect future growth and earnings.
Much of our success and growth has been influenced by our ability to attract and retain management experienced in banking and financial services and familiar with the communities in our market areas. Our ability to retain our executive officers, current management teams, branch managers and loan officers will continue to be important to the successful implementation of our strategy. It is also critical, as we grow, to be able to attract and retain qualified additional management and loan officers with the appropriate level of experience and knowledge about our market areas to implement our operating strategy. The Dodd-Frank Act also directs the Federal Reserve to promulgate rules prohibiting excessive compensation paid to bank holding company executives. These rules, when adopted, may make it more difficult to attract and retain the people we need to operate our businesses and limit our ability to promote our objectives through our compensation and incentive programs. The unexpected loss of services of any key management personnel, or the inability to recruit and retain qualified personnel in the future, could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The occurrence of fraudulent activity, breaches or failures of our information security controls or cybersecurity-related incidents could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
As a bank, we are susceptible to fraudulent activity, information security breaches and cybersecurity-related incidents that may be committed against us or our clients, which may result in financial losses or increased costs to us or our clients, disclosure or misuse of our information or our client information, misappropriation of assets, privacy breaches against our clients, litigation or damage to our reputation. Such fraudulent activity may take many forms, including check fraud, electronic fraud, wire fraud, phishing, social engineering and other dishonest acts. Information security breaches and cybersecurity-related incidents may include fraudulent or unauthorized access to systems used by us or our clients, denial or degradation of service attacks and malware or other cyber-attacks.
In recent periods, there continues to be a rise in electronic fraudulent activity, security breaches and cyber-attacks within the financial services industry, especially in the commercial banking sector due to cyber criminals targeting commercial bank accounts. Moreover, in recent periods, several large corporations, including financial institutions and retail companies, have suffered major data breaches, in some cases exposing not only confidential and proprietary corporate information, but also sensitive financial and other personal information of their customers and employees and subjecting them to potential fraudulent activity.
Some of our clients may have been affected by these breaches, which could increase their risks of identity theft and other fraudulent activity that could involve their accounts with us.
Information pertaining to us and our clients is maintained, and transactions are executed, on networks and systems maintained by us and certain third party partners, such as our online banking, mobile banking or accounting systems. The secure maintenance and transmission of confidential information, as well as execution of transactions over these systems, are essential to protect us and our clients against fraud and security breaches and to maintain the confidence of our clients. Breaches of information security also may occur through intentional or unintentional acts by those having access to our systems or the confidential information of our clients, including employees. In addition, increases in criminal activity levels and sophistication, advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries, vulnerabilities in third party technologies (including browsers and operating systems) or other developments could result in a compromise or breach of the technology, processes and controls that we use to prevent fraudulent transactions and to protect data about us, our clients and underlying transactions, as well as the technology used by our clients to access our systems. Our third party partners’ inability to anticipate, or failure to adequately mitigate, breaches of security could result in a number of negative events, including losses to us or our clients, loss of business or clients, damage to our reputation, the incurrence of additional expenses, disruption to our business, additional regulatory scrutiny or penalties or our exposure to civil litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
We depend on information technology and telecommunications systems of third parties, and any systems failures, interruptions or data breaches involving these systems could adversely affect our operations and financial condition.
Our business is highly dependent on the successful and uninterrupted functioning of our information technology and telecommunications systems, third party servicers, accounting systems, mobile and online banking platforms and financial intermediaries. We outsource to third parties many of our major systems, such as data processing and mobile and online banking. The failure of these systems, or the termination of a third party software license or service agreement on which any of these systems is based, could interrupt our operations. Because our information technology and telecommunications systems interface with and depend on third party systems, we could experience service denials if demand for such services exceeds capacity or such third party systems fail or experience interruptions. A system failure or service denial could result in a deterioration of our ability to process loans or gather deposits and provide customer service, compromise our ability to operate effectively, result in potential noncompliance with applicable laws or regulations, damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business or subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. In addition, failures of third parties to comply with applicable laws and regulations, or fraud or misconduct on the part of employees of any of these third parties, could disrupt our operations or adversely affect our reputation.
It may be difficult for us to replace some of our third party vendors, particularly vendors providing our core banking and information services, in a timely manner if they are unwilling or unable to provide us with these services in the future for any reason and even if we are able to replace them, it may be at higher cost or result in the loss of customers. Any such events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Our operations rely heavily on the secure processing, storage and transmission of information and the monitoring of a large number of transactions on a minute-by-minute basis, and even a short interruption in service could have significant consequences. We also interact with and rely on retailers, for whom we process transactions, as well as financial counterparties and regulators. Each of these third parties may be targets of the same types of fraudulent activity, computer break-ins and other cybersecurity breaches described above, and the cybersecurity measures that they maintain to mitigate the risk of such activity may be different than our own and may be inadequate.
As a result of financial entities and technology systems becoming more interdependent and complex, a cyber incident, information breach or loss, or technology failure that compromises the systems or data of one or more financial entities could have a material impact on counterparties or other market participants, including ourselves. As a result of the foregoing, our ability to conduct business may be adversely affected by any significant disruptions to us or to third parties with whom we interact.
We are subject to certain operational risks, including, but not limited to, customer or employee fraud and data processing system failures and errors.
Employee errors and employee and customer misconduct could subject us to financial losses or regulatory sanctions and seriously harm our reputation. Misconduct by our employees could include hiding unauthorized activities from us, improper or unauthorized activities on behalf of our customers or improper use of confidential information. It is not always possible to prevent
employee errors and misconduct, and the precautions we take to prevent and detect this activity may not be effective in all cases. Employee errors could also subject us to financial claims for negligence.
We maintain a system of internal controls and insurance coverage to mitigate against operational risks, including data processing system failures and errors and customer or employee fraud. Should our internal controls fail to prevent or detect an occurrence, and if any resulting loss is not insured or exceeds applicable insurance limits, such failure could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our framework for managing risks may not be effective in mitigating risk and loss to us.
Our risk management framework seeks to mitigate risk and loss to us. We have established processes and procedures intended to identify, measure, monitor, report and analyze the types of risk to which we are subject, including liquidity risk, credit risk, market risk, interest rate risk, operational risk, compensation risk, legal and compliance risk, and reputational risk, among others. However, as with any risk management framework, there are inherent limitations to our risk management strategies as there may exist, or develop in the future, risks that we have not appropriately anticipated or identified. Our ability to successfully identify and manage risks facing us is an important factor that can significantly impact our results. If our risk management framework proves ineffective, we could suffer unexpected losses and could be materially adversely affected.
Our internal controls may be ineffective
Management regularly reviews and updates our internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures and corporate governance policies and procedures. Any system of controls, however well designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. Any failure or circumvention of our controls and procedures or failure to comply with regulations related to controls and procedures could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We depend on the accuracy and completeness of information provided by customers and counterparties.
In deciding whether to extend credit or enter into other transactions with customers and counterparties, we may rely on information furnished to us by or on behalf of customers and counterparties, including financial statements and other financial information. We also may rely on representations of customers and counterparties as to the accuracy and completeness of that information. In deciding whether to extend credit, we may rely upon our customers' representations that their financial statements conform to U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”) and present fairly, in all material respects, the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of the customer. We also may rely on customer representations and certifications, or other audit or accountants' reports, with respect to the business and financial condition of our clients. Our financial condition, results of operations, financial reporting and reputation could be negatively affected if we rely on materially misleading, false, inaccurate or fraudulent information.
Our reputation could be damaged by negative publicity.
Reputational risk, or the risk to our business, financial condition or results of operations from negative publicity, is inherent in our business. Negative publicity can result from actual or alleged conduct in a number of areas, including legal and regulatory compliance, lending practices, corporate governance, litigation, inadequate protection of customer data, ethical behavior of our employees, and from actions taken by regulators, ratings agencies and others as a result of that conduct. Damage to our reputation could impact our ability to attract new or maintain existing loan and deposit customers, employees and business relationships.
We operate in a highly regulated industry and the laws and regulations to which we are subject, or changes in them, or our failure to comply with them, may adversely affect us.
The Company and the Bank are subject to extensive regulation by multiple regulatory agencies. These regulations may affect the manner and terms of delivery of our services. If we do not comply with governmental regulations, we may be subject to fines, penalties, lawsuits or material restrictions on our businesses in the jurisdiction where the violation occurred, which may adversely affect our business operations. Changes in these regulations can significantly affect the services that we provide, as well as our costs of compliance with such regulations. In addition, adverse publicity and damage to our reputation arising from the failure or perceived failure to comply with legal, regulatory or contractual requirements could affect our ability to attract and retain customers.
Monetary policies and regulations of the Federal Reserve could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition to being affected by general economic conditions, our earnings and growth are affected by the policies of the Federal Reserve. An important function of the Federal Reserve is to regulate the money supply and credit conditions. Among the instruments used by the Federal Reserve to implement these objectives are open market operations in U.S. government securities, adjustments of the discount rate and changes in reserve requirements against bank deposits. These instruments are used in varying combinations to influence overall economic growth and the distribution of credit, bank loans, investments and deposits. Their use also affects interest rates charged on loans or paid on deposits.
The monetary policies and regulations of the Federal Reserve have had a significant effect on the operating results of commercial banks in the past and are expected to continue to do so in the future. The effects of such policies upon our business, financial condition and results of operations cannot be predicted.
Federal and state regulators periodically examine our business, and we may be required to remediate adverse examination findings.
The Federal Reserve, the FDIC, and the Iowa Division periodically examine our business, including our compliance with laws and regulations. If, as a result of an examination, a banking agency were to determine that our financial condition, capital resources, asset quality, earnings prospects, management, liquidity or other aspects of any of our operations had become unsatisfactory, or that we were in violation of any law or regulation, they may take a number of different remedial actions as they deem appropriate. These actions include the power to enjoin “unsafe or unsound” practices, to require affirmative action to correct any conditions resulting from any violation or practice, to issue an administrative order that can be judicially enforced, to direct an increase in our capital, to restrict our growth, to assess civil money penalties, to fine or remove officers and directors and, if it is concluded that such conditions cannot be corrected or there is an imminent risk of loss to depositors, to terminate our deposit insurance and place our bank into receivership or conservatorship. Any regulatory action against us could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to numerous laws designed to protect consumers, including the CRA and fair lending laws, and failure to comply with these laws could lead to a wide variety of sanctions.
The CRA requires our bank, consistent with safe and sound operations, to ascertain and meet the credit needs of its entire community, including low and moderate income areas. Our bank’s failure to comply with the CRA could, among other things, result in the denial or delay of certain corporate applications filed by us or our bank, including applications for branch openings or relocations and applications to acquire, merge or consolidate with another banking institution or holding company. In addition, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act and other fair lending laws and regulations prohibit discriminatory lending practices by financial institutions. The U.S. Department of Justice, federal banking agencies, and other federal agencies are responsible for enforcing these laws and regulations. A challenge to an institution’s compliance with fair lending laws and regulations could result in a wide variety of sanctions, including damages and civil money penalties, injunctive relief, restrictions on mergers and acquisitions activity, restrictions on expansion, and restrictions on entering new business lines. Private parties may also challenge an institution’s performance under fair lending laws in private class action litigation. Such actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Non-compliance with the USA Patriot Act, the Bank Secrecy Act or other laws and regulations could result in fines or sanctions against us.
The USA Patriot Act and the Bank Secrecy Act require financial institutions to design and implement programs to prevent financial institutions from being used for money laundering and terrorist activities. If such activities are detected, financial institutions are obligated to file suspicious activity reports with the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network of the Treasury. These rules require financial institutions to establish procedures for identifying and verifying the identity of customers seeking to open new financial accounts. Federal and state bank regulators also have focused on compliance with Bank Secrecy Act and anti-money laundering regulations. Failure to comply with these regulations could result in fines or sanctions, including restrictions on conducting acquisitions or establishing new branches. In recent years, several banking institutions have received large fines for non-compliance with these laws and regulations. While we have developed policies and procedures designed to assist in compliance with these laws and regulations, these policies and procedures may not be effective in preventing violations of these laws and regulations. Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing could also have serious reputational consequences for us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Common Stock Risks
There is a limited trading market for our common shares, and you may not be able to resell your shares at or above the price you paid for them.
Although our common shares are listed for quotation on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, the trading in our common shares has substantially less liquidity than many other companies listed on Nasdaq. A public trading market having the desired characteristics of depth, liquidity and orderliness depends on the presence in the market of willing buyers and sellers of our common shares at any given time. This presence depends on the individual decisions of investors and general economic and market conditions over which we have no control. We cannot assure you that the volume of trading in our common shares will increase in the future.
The stock market can be volatile, and fluctuations in our operating results and other factors could cause our stock price to decline.
The stock market has experienced, and may continue to experience, fluctuations that significantly impact the market prices of securities issued by many companies. Market fluctuations could adversely affect our stock price. These fluctuations have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of particular companies. These broad market fluctuations, as well as general economic, systemic, political and market conditions, such as recessions, loss of investor confidence, interest rate changes, government shutdowns, trade wars, or international currency fluctuations, may negatively affect the market price of our common stock. Moreover, our operating results may fluctuate and vary from period to period due to the risk factors set forth herein. As a result, period-to-period comparisons should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. Our stock price could fluctuate significantly in response to our quarterly or annual results, annual projections and the impact of these risk factors on our operating results or financial position.
Certain shareholders own a significant interest in the company and may exercise their control in a manner detrimental to your interests.
Certain MidWestOne shareholders who are descendants of our founder collectively control approximately 23.1% of our outstanding common stock. Following the anticipated merger with ATBancorp, ATBancorp’s shareholders are expected to own approximately 25% of MidWestOne’s outstanding common stock. These shareholders may have the opportunity to exert influence on the outcome of matters required to be submitted to shareholders for approval. In addition, the significant level of ownership by these shareholders may contribute to the rather limited liquidity of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.
The following table is a listing of the Company’s operating facilities:
802 13th Street in Belle Plaine
3225 Division Street in Burlington
4510 Prairie Parkway in Cedar Falls
120 West Center Street in Conrad
110 First Avenue in Coralville
58 East Burlington Avenue in Fairfield
2408 West Burlington Avenue in Fairfield
926 Avenue G in Fort Madison
102 South Clinton Street in Iowa City (1)
500 South Clinton Street in Iowa City (2)
1906 Keokuk Street in Iowa City
2233 Rochester Avenue in Iowa City
202 Main Street in Melbourne
10030 Highway 149 in North English
465 Highway 965 NE, Suite A in North Liberty
124 South First Street in Oskaloosa
222 First Avenue East in Oskaloosa
1001 Highway 57 in Parkersburg
700 Main Street, Suite 100 in Pella
500 Oskaloosa Street in Pella
112 North Main Street in Sigourney
3110 Kimball Avenue in Waterloo
305 West Rainbow Drive in West Liberty
7111 21st Avenue N. in Centerville
7031 20th Avenue S. in Centerville (3)
11151 Lake Boulevard in Chisago City
3585 124th Avenue in Coon Rapids
6640 Shady Oak Road in Eden Prairie
18233 Carson Court NW in Elk River
1650 South Lake Street in Forest Lake
945 Winnetka Avenue N. in Golden Valley
2120 Hennepin Avenue S. in Minneapolis
2104 Hastings Avenue in Newport
750 Central Avenue E., Suite 100 in Saint Michael
930 Southview Boulevard in South Saint Paul
2270 Frontage Road W. in Stillwater
3670 East County Line N. in White Bear Lake
404 County Road UU in Hudson
880 Sixth Street N. in Hudson
304 Cascade Street in Osceola
2183 US Highway 8 E. in Saint Croix Falls
8690 Gladiolus Drive in Fort Myers
4099 Tamiami Trail N., Suite 100 in Naples
1899 Wynkoop Street, Suite 100 in Denver
8670 Wolff Court in Westminster(4)
(1) - This facility is utilized as a branch in addition to housing the Company’s headquarters.
(2) - This facility contains a total of 63,206 square feet, of which the Bank occupies 44,427 square feet.
(3) - This facility is not a full service branch, but is used exclusively for the origination of Small Business Administration (“SBA”) loans.
(4) - This facility is not a full service branch, but is used exclusively for investment advisory services.
The Bank intends to limit its investment in premises to no more than 50% of capital. Management believes that the facilities are of sound construction, in good operating condition, appropriately insured and adequately equipped for carrying on the business of the Company.
No individual real estate property amounts to 10% or more of consolidated assets.
We and our subsidiaries are from time to time parties to various legal actions arising in the normal course of business. We believe that there is no threatened or pending proceeding, other than ordinary routine litigation incidental to the Company’s business, against us or our subsidiaries or of which our property is the subject, which, if determined adversely, would have a material adverse effect on our consolidated business or financial condition.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “MOFG.”
As of March 6, 2019, there were 12,171,032 shares of common stock outstanding held by approximately 416 holders of record. Additionally, there are an estimated 2,715 beneficial holders whose stock was held in street name by brokerage houses and other nominees as of that date.
Repurchases of Company Equity Securities
On October 16, 2018, the Board of Directors of the Company approved a new share repurchase program, allowing for the repurchase of up to $5.0 million of common stock through December 31, 2020. The new repurchase program replaces the Company's prior repurchase program, pursuant to which the Company had repurchased 33,998 shares of common stock for approximately $1.1 million since the plan was announced in July 2016. The prior program had authorized the repurchase of $5.0 million of stock and was due to expire on December 31, 2018.
The following table sets forth information about the Company’s purchases of its common stock in the fourth quarter of 2018:
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Total Number of Shares Purchased
Average Price Paid per Share
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Programs
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Program
October 1 - 31, 2018
November 1 - 30, 2018
December 1 - 31, 2018
The following table compares MidWestOne’s performance, as measured by the change in price of its common stock plus reinvested dividends, with the Nasdaq Composite Index and the SNL-Midwestern Banks Index for the five years ended December 31, 2018.
MidWestOne Financial Group, Inc.
MidWestOne Financial Group, Inc.
Nasdaq Composite Index
SNL-Midwestern Banks Index
The banks in the custom peer group - SNL-Midwestern Banks Index - represent all publicly traded banks, thrifts or financial service companies located in Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA.
The following selected financial data for each of the five years in the period ended December 31, 2018, has been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements and the results of operations for each of the five years in the period ended December 31, 2018. This financial data should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and the related notes thereto.
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)
Summary of Income Data:
Total interest income excluding loan pool participations
Total interest and discount on loan pool participations
Total interest income including loan pool participations
Total interest expense
Net interest income
Provision for loan losses
Income before income tax
Income tax expense
Per share data:
Earnings per common share - basic
Earnings per common share - diluted
Earnings per common share, exclusive of merger-related expenses - diluted*
Earnings per common share, exclusive of deferred tax adjustment - diluted*
Cash dividends declared
Net tangible book value*
Selected financial ratios:
Return on average assets
Return on average assets, exclusive of merger-related expenses*
Return on average assets, exclusive of deferred tax adjustment*
Return on average equity
Return on average equity, exclusive of merger-related expenses*
Return on average equity, exclusive of deferred tax adjustment*