Form 10-Q
Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 10-Q

 

 

 

x QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

FOR THE QUARTERLY PERIOD ENDED JUNE 30, 2008

OR

 

¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from              to             .

Commission file number 1-14536

 

 

PartnerRe Ltd.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Bermuda   Not Applicable
(State of incorporation)   (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

90 Pitts Bay Road, Pembroke, HM08, Bermuda

(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

(441) 292-0888

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Not Applicable

(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to the filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer  x    Accelerated filer  ¨    Non-accelerated filer  ¨    Smaller reporting company  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

Yes  ¨    No  x

The number of the Registrant’s common shares (par value $1.00 per share) outstanding, net of treasury shares, as of August 5, 2008 was 53,006,931.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

PartnerRe Ltd.

INDEX TO FORM 10-Q

 

     Page
PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION   
ITEM 1.   

Financial Statements

  
  

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

   1
  

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets—June 30, 2008 and December 31, 2007

   2
  

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income—Three Months and Six Months Ended June 30, 2008 and 2007

   3
  

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity—Six Months Ended June 30, 2008 and 2007

   4
  

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows—Six Months Ended June 30, 2008 and 2007

   5
  

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

   6
ITEM 2.   

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

   18
ITEM 3.   

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

   53
ITEM 4.   

Controls and Procedures

   55
PART II—OTHER INFORMATION

ITEM 1.

  

Legal Proceedings

   55

ITEM 1A.

  

Risk Factors

   55

ITEM 2.

  

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

   55

ITEM 3.

  

Defaults upon Senior Securities

   57

ITEM 4.

  

Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders

   57

ITEM 5.

  

Other Information

   57

ITEM 6.

  

Exhibits

   57
  

Signatures

   58
  

Exhibit Index

   59


Table of Contents

PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

Item 1. Financial Statements

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of PartnerRe Ltd.

We have reviewed the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet of PartnerRe Ltd. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of June 30, 2008, and the related condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income, for the three-month and six-month periods ended June 30, 2008 and 2007, and of shareholders’ equity and of cash flows for the six-month periods ended June 30, 2008 and 2007. These interim condensed consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management.

We conducted our reviews in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). A review of interim financial information consists principally of applying analytical procedures and making inquiries of persons responsible for financial and accounting matters. It is substantially less in scope than an audit conducted in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the objective of which is the expression of an opinion regarding the financial statements taken as a whole. Accordingly, we do not express such an opinion.

Based on our reviews, we are not aware of any material modifications that should be made to such condensed consolidated interim financial statements for them to be in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We have previously audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the consolidated balance sheet of PartnerRe Ltd. and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2007 and the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income, shareholders’ equity and cash flows for the year then ended (not presented herein); and in our report dated February 29, 2008, we expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements. In our opinion, the information set forth in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2007 is fairly stated, in all material respects, in relation to the consolidated balance sheet from which it has been derived.

 

/s/ Deloitte & Touche

Deloitte & Touche
Hamilton, Bermuda
August 8, 2008

 

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Table of Contents

PartnerRe Ltd.

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(Expressed in thousands of U.S. dollars, except parenthetical share and per share data)

 

     June 30,2008     December 31,2007  

Assets

    

Investments:

    

Fixed maturities, trading securities, at fair value (amortized cost: 2008, $10,417,424; 2007, $nil)

   $ 10,288,547     $ —    

Short-term investments, trading securities, at fair value (amortized cost: 2008, $108,738; 2007, $nil)

     108,238       —    

Equities, trading securities, at fair value (cost: 2008, $1,119,837; 2007, $nil)

     1,064,880       —    

Fixed maturities, available for sale, at fair value (amortized cost: 2008, $nil; 2007, $9,401,962)

     —         9,498,791  

Short-term investments, available for sale, at fair value (amortized cost: 2008, $nil; 2007, $97,153)

     —         97,307  

Equities, available for sale, at fair value (cost: 2008, $nil; 2007, $838,777)

     —         871,762  

Trading securities, at fair value (cost: 2008, $nil; 2007, $407,541)

     —         399,280  

Other invested assets

     99,693       50,201  
                

Total investments

     11,561,358       10,917,341  

Cash and cash equivalents, at fair value, which approximates amortized cost

     480,349       654,895  

Accrued investment income

     201,234       176,386  

Reinsurance balances receivable

     2,160,974       1,449,702  

Reinsurance recoverable on paid and unpaid losses

     176,294       158,494  

Funds held by reinsured companies

     938,804       1,083,036  

Deferred acquisition costs

     756,582       641,818  

Deposit assets

     397,939       398,079  

Goodwill

     429,519       429,519  

Net receivable for securities sold

     6,434       50,065  

Other assets

     87,656       77,614  
                

Total assets

   $ 17,197,143     $ 16,036,949  
                

Liabilities

    

Unpaid losses and loss expenses

   $ 7,614,036     $ 7,231,436  

Policy benefits for life and annuity contracts

     1,641,389       1,541,687  

Unearned premiums

     1,837,256       1,267,873  

Reinsurance balances payable

     150,547       119,853  

Ceded premiums payable

     23,690       14,617  

Funds held under reinsurance treaties

     29,696       21,585  

Deposit liabilities

     433,882       435,852  

Net tax liabilities

     12,766       37,743  

Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other

     137,034       167,141  

Long-term debt

     400,000       620,000  

Debt related to senior notes

     250,000       —    

Debt related to capital efficient notes

     257,605       257,605  
                

Total liabilities

     12,787,901       11,715,392  
                

Shareholders’ Equity

    

Common shares (par value $1.00, issued: 2008, 57,666,349; 2007, 57,379,516)

     57,666       57,380  

Series C cumulative preferred shares (par value $1.00, issued and outstanding: 2008 and 2007, 11,600,000; aggregate liquidation preference: 2008 and 2007, $290,000,000)

     11,600       11,600  

Series D cumulative preferred shares (par value $1.00, issued and outstanding: 2008 and 2007, 9,200,000; aggregate liquidation preference: 2008 and 2007, $230,000,000)

     9,200       9,200  

Additional paid-in capital

     1,461,035       1,441,598  

Accumulated other comprehensive income:

    

Net unrealized gains on investments (net of tax of: 2008, $nil; 2007, $32,769)

     4,013       94,747  

Currency translation adjustment

     254,783       197,777  

Unfunded pension obligation (net of tax of: 2008, $1,080; 2007, $1,021)

     (3,608 )     (3,274 )

Retained earnings

     2,895,585       2,753,784  

Common shares held in treasury, at cost (2008, 3,661,468; 2007, 3,129,008)

     (281,032 )     (241,255 )
                

Total shareholders’ equity

     4,409,242       4,321,557  
                

Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity

   $ 17,197,143     $ 16,036,949  
                

See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

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PartnerRe Ltd.

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income

(Expressed in thousands of U.S. dollars, except share and per share data)

 

     For the three
months ended
June 30,

2008
    For the three
months ended
June 30,

2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,

2008
    For the six
months ended
June 30,

2007
 

Revenues

        

Gross premiums written

   $ 968,163     $ 907,758     $ 2,407,495     $ 2,209,521  
                                

Net premiums written

   $ 956,269     $ 898,686     $ 2,367,833     $ 2,169,258  

Increase in unearned premiums

     (730 )     (9,409 )     (502,540 )     (437,940 )
                                

Net premiums earned

     955,539       889,277       1,865,293       1,731,318  

Net investment income

     145,494       130,894       282,504       249,911  

Net realized and unrealized investment losses

     (296,255 )     (53,647 )     (271,143 )     (52,879 )

Other income (loss)

     4,591       (8,911 )     6,228       (8,393 )
                                

Total revenues

     809,369       957,613       1,882,882       1,919,957  

Expenses

        

Losses and loss expenses and life policy benefits

     548,720       524,038       1,138,388       1,002,772  

Acquisition costs

     228,170       206,313       432,408       407,037  

Other operating expenses

     96,737       79,947       189,017       158,931  

Interest expense

     14,914       13,484       26,810       26,994  

Net foreign exchange (gains) losses

     (1,574 )     9,308       3,223       13,554  
                                

Total expenses

     886,967       833,090       1,789,846       1,609,288  

(Loss) income before taxes and interest in (losses) earnings of equity investments

     (77,598 )     124,523       93,036       310,669  

Income tax (benefit) expense

     (53,423 )     22,716       (10,697 )     42,620  

Interest in (losses) earnings of equity investments

     (1,849 )     3,214       (737 )     6,239  
                                

Net (loss) income

     (26,024 )     105,021       102,996       274,288  

Preferred dividends

     8,631       8,631       17,263       17,263  
                                

Net (loss) income available to common shareholders

   $ (34,655 )   $ 96,390     $ 85,733     $ 257,025  
                                

Comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax

        

Net (loss) income

   $ (26,024 )   $ 105,021     $ 102,996     $ 274,288  

Change in net unrealized gains or losses on investments, net of tax

     6,653       (54,167 )     15,227       (47,406 )

Change in currency translation adjustment

     4,000       31,695       57,006       40,597  

Change in unfunded pension obligation, net of tax

     69       64       (334 )     45  
                                

Comprehensive (loss) income

   $ (15,302 )   $ 82,613     $ 174,895     $ 267,524  
                                

Per share data

        

Net (loss) income per common share:

        

Basic net (loss) income

   $ (0.64 )   $ 1.70     $ 1.58     $ 4.52  

Diluted net (loss) income

   $ (0.64 )   $ 1.66     $ 1.54     $ 4.42  

Weighted average number of common shares outstanding

     54,276,623       56,682,753       54,262,457       56,820,780  

Weighted average number of common and common share equivalents outstanding

     54,276,623       58,148,651       55,685,583       58,173,663  

Dividends declared per common share

   $ 0.46     $ 0.43     $ 0.92     $ 0.86  

See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

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PartnerRe Ltd.

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity

(Expressed in thousands of U.S. dollars)

 

     For the six
months ended
June 30, 2008
    For the six
months ended
June 30, 2007
 

Common shares

    

Balance at beginning of period

   $ 57,380     $ 57,076  

Issue of common shares

     286       491  

Repurchase of common shares

     —         (487 )
                

Balance at end of period

     57,666       57,080  

Preferred shares

    

Balance at beginning and end of period

     20,800       20,800  

Additional paid-in capital

    

Balance at beginning of period

     1,441,598       1,413,977  

Issue of common shares

     19,437       36,329  

Repurchase of common shares

     —         (33,297 )
                

Balance at end of period

     1,461,035       1,417,009  

Accumulated other comprehensive income

    

Balance at beginning of period

     289,250       118,370  

Impact of adopting SFAS 159

     (105,961 )     —    

Change in net unrealized gains or losses on investments, net of tax

     15,227       (47,406 )

Change in currency translation adjustment

     57,006       40,597  

Change in unfunded pension obligation, net of tax

     (334 )     45  
                

Balance at end of period

     255,188       111,606  

Retained earnings

    

Balance at beginning of period

     2,753,784       2,175,624  

Net income

     102,996       274,288  

Impact of adopting SFAS 159

     105,961       —    

Impact of adopting FIN 48

           (8,721 )

Dividends on common shares

     (49,893 )     (49,026 )

Dividends on preferred shares

     (17,263 )     (17,263 )
                

Balance at end of period

     2,895,585       2,374,902  

Common shares held in treasury

    

Balance at beginning of period

     (241,255 )     —    

Repurchase of common shares

     (39,777 )     (44,155 )
                

Balance at end of period

     (281,032 )     (44,155 )
                

Total shareholders’ equity

   $ 4,409,242     $ 3,937,242  
                

See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

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PartnerRe Ltd.

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(Expressed in thousands of U.S. dollars)

 

     For the six
months ended
June 30, 2008
    For the six
months ended
June 30, 2007
 

Cash Flows from Operating Activities

    

Net income

   $ 102,996     $ 274,288  

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:

    

Amortization of net premium on investments

     4,650       1,825  

Net realized and unrealized investment losses

     271,143       52,879  

Changes in:

    

Net sales of trading securities

     —         514,379  

Reinsurance balances, net

     (622,812 )     (291,801 )

Reinsurance recoverable on paid and unpaid losses, net of ceded premiums payable

     16,134       20,272  

Funds held by reinsured companies

     166,697       30,424  

Deferred acquisition costs

     (88,713 )     (89,553 )

Net tax liabilities (assets)

     (18,127 )     9,157  

Unpaid losses and loss expenses including life policy benefits

     215,797       15,749  

Unearned premiums

     502,540       437,940  

Other changes in operating assets and liabilities

     (34,023 )     (12,670 )

Other, net

     3,223       13,554  
                

Net cash provided by operating activities

     519,505       976,443  

Cash Flows from Investing Activities

    

Sales of fixed maturities

     3,234,844       2,174,374  

Redemptions of fixed maturities

     430,734       420,970  

Purchases of fixed maturities

     (4,421,994 )     (3,006,139 )

Sales of short-term investments

     114,842       7,383  

Redemptions of short-term investments

     —         82,751  

Purchases of short-term investments

     (124,230 )     (39,250 )

Sales of equities

     891,536       679,277  

Purchases of equities

     (800,242 )     (1,061,028 )

Other, net

     57,535       (49,598 )
                

Net cash used in investing activities

     (616,975 )     (791,260 )

Cash Flows from Financing Activities

    

Cash dividends paid to shareholders

     (67,156 )     (66,289 )

Net repurchase of common shares and treasury shares

     (32,760 )     (54,457 )

Redemption of long-term debt

     (220,000 )     —    

Proceeds from issuance of senior notes

     250,000       —    

Contract fees on forward sale agreement

     (5,190 )     (5,124 )
                

Net cash used in financing activities

     (75,106 )     (125,870 )

Effect of foreign exchange rate changes on cash

     (1,970 )     4,091  

(Decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents

     (174,546 )     63,404  

Cash and cash equivalents—beginning of period

     654,895       988,788  
                

Cash and cash equivalents—end of period

   $ 480,349     $ 1,052,192  
                

Supplemental cash flow information:

    

Taxes paid

   $ 17,291     $ 33,409  

Interest paid

   $ 27,408     $ 28,160  

See accompanying Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

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PartnerRe Ltd.

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

 

1. Organization

PartnerRe Ltd. (the Company) provides reinsurance on a worldwide basis through its principal wholly owned subsidiaries, Partner Reinsurance Company Ltd. (Partner Reinsurance), Partner Reinsurance Company of the U.S. (PartnerRe U.S.) and Partner Reinsurance Europe Limited (PartnerRe Europe). Risks reinsured include, but are not limited to property, casualty, motor, agriculture, aviation/space, catastrophe, credit/surety, engineering, energy, marine, specialty property, specialty casualty, multiline and other lines, life/annuity and health and alternative risk products. The Company’s alternative risk products include weather and credit protection to financial, industrial and service companies on a worldwide basis.

On January 1, 2008, the Company completed a reorganization, at which time PartnerRe SA, a wholly owned subsidiary, ceased its underwriting operations. As part of the reorganization, PartnerRe SA, its Canadian non-life branch and the Swiss branch of Partner Reinsurance transferred substantially all of their business, assets and liabilities to PartnerRe Europe. Following the reorganization, PartnerRe Europe is the principal reinsurance carrier for all of the Company’s business underwritten in France, Ireland and Switzerland and for the non-life business underwritten in Canada. Contemporaneously, the business, assets and liabilities of the Canadian life branch of PartnerRe SA were transferred to a new Canadian life branch of Partner Reinsurance.

 

2. Significant Accounting Policies

The Company’s Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (U.S. GAAP) for interim financial information and with the instructions for Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. The Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries, including those that meet the consolidation requirements of variable interest entities (VIEs). Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated. To facilitate comparison of information across periods, certain reclassifications have been made to prior year amounts to conform to the current year’s presentation.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires Management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. While Management believes that the amounts included in the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements reflect its best estimates and assumptions, actual results could differ from those estimates. The Company’s principal estimates include:

 

   

Unpaid losses and loss expenses;

 

   

Policy benefits for life and annuity contracts;

 

   

Gross and net premiums written and net premiums earned;

 

   

Recoverability of deferred acquisition costs;

 

   

Recoverability of deferred tax assets;

 

   

Valuation of goodwill; and

 

   

Valuation of other invested assets, including certain derivative financial instruments, and fixed maturity and equity investments that are measured using significant unobservable inputs.

In the opinion of Management, all adjustments (which include normal recurring adjustments) necessary for a fair presentation of results for the interim periods have been made. As the Company’s reinsurance operations are exposed to low-frequency high-severity risk events, some of which are seasonal, results for certain interim periods may include unusually low loss experience while results for other interim periods may include significant catastrophic losses. Consequently, the Company’s results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of results for the full year. These Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2007.

The following significant accounting policies were adopted by the Company during the six months ended June 30, 2008.

(a) Fair Value

Effective January 1, 2008, the Company adopted Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Statement No. 157, “Fair Value Measurements” (SFAS 157). SFAS 157 defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosures regarding fair value measurements. SFAS 157 defines fair value as the price received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. SFAS 157 provides guidance on how to measure the fair value of financial instruments according to a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the information used to measure fair value into three broad levels. SFAS 157 broadly applies to most existing pronouncements that require or permit fair value measurements (including both financial and non-financial assets and liabilities) but does not require any new fair value measurements.

 

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The adoption of SFAS 157 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated shareholders’ equity or net income. See Note 4 for additional information on fair value.

In February 2008, the FASB issued FSP SFAS 157-2 “Effective Date of FASB Statement No. 157” (FSP SFAS 157-2), which permits a one-year deferral of the application of SFAS 157 for all non-financial assets and non-financial liabilities, except those that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring basis. The Company will adopt SFAS 157 for non-financial assets and non-financial liabilities on January 1, 2009 and is currently evaluating the impact of this adoption on its consolidated shareholders’ equity and net income.

(b) Investments

Effective January 1, 2008, the Company adopted FASB Statement No. 159, “The Fair Value Option for Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities—Including an amendment of FASB Statement No. 115” (SFAS 159). SFAS 159 allows entities to choose, at specified election dates, to measure eligible financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value that are not otherwise required to be measured at fair value. Following the election of the fair value option for an eligible item, changes in that item’s fair value in subsequent reporting periods must be recognized in earnings. SFAS 159 also establishes presentation and disclosure requirements designed to draw comparisons between entities that elect different measurement attributes for similar assets and liabilities.

Under the provisions of SFAS 159, the Company elected the fair value option for all of its fixed maturities, short-term investments, equities and other invested assets (including swaps and derivatives but excluding certain other invested assets, such as those that are accounted for using the equity method of accounting).

On adoption of SFAS 159, the Company recorded a cumulative effect adjustment of $106.0 million, net of taxes, which decreased accumulated other comprehensive income and increased opening retained earnings as of January 1, 2008. The adoption did not have any impact on the Company’s consolidated net income, shareholders’ equity nor its comprehensive income.

Following the adoption of SFAS 159, all of the Company’s fixed maturities, short-term investments and equities that were previously classified as available for sale securities, as well as other invested assets, are reported as trading securities. Trading securities are carried at fair value with changes in fair value included in net realized and unrealized investment gains and losses in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. As a consequence, the Company is no longer required to perform an analysis of its investments for other-than-temporary impairment.

The Company believes that accounting for its investments as trading, with all changes in fair value included in net income, provides a better presentation of the Company’s total return on its investments and also removes an element of management judgment from the preparation of its financial statements by no longer requiring an assessment of its investments for other-than-temporary impairment.

 

3. New Accounting Pronouncements

See Note 2(u) to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2007 for a discussion of the new accounting pronouncements impacting the Company. New accounting pronouncements issued during 2008 impacting the Company are as follows:

SFAS 161

In March 2008, the FASB issued Statement No. 161, “Disclosures about Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities — an amendment of FASB Statement No. 133” (SFAS 161). SFAS 161 requires enhanced disclosures about an entity’s derivative and hedging activities, and is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after November 15, 2008. The Company will adopt SFAS 161 as of January 1, 2009. Since SFAS 161 requires only additional disclosures concerning derivative and hedging activities, its adoption will not affect the Company’s consolidated shareholders’ equity or net income.

SFAS 163

In May 2008, the FASB issued Statement No. 163, “Accounting for Financial Guarantee Insurance Contracts — an interpretation of FASB Statement No. 60” (SFAS 163). SFAS 163 clarifies the recognition and measurement of premium revenue and claim liabilities, and requires expanded disclosures about an entity’s financial guarantee insurance contracts. SFAS 163 is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2008, with certain disclosures about the Company’s risk-management activities effective for the three months ended September 30, 2008. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of SFAS 163 on its consolidated shareholders’ equity and net income.

 

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EITF 07-05

In June 2008, the FASB’s Emerging Issues Task Force reached a consensus regarding EITF Issue 07-5, “Determining Whether an Instrument (or Embedded Feature) Is Indexed to an Entity’s Own Stock” (EITF 07-5). EITF 07-5 outlines a two-step approach to evaluate the instrument’s contingent exercise provisions, if any, and to evaluate the instrument’s settlement provisions when determining whether an equity-linked financial instrument (or embedded feature) is indexed to an entity’s own stock. EITF 07-5 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2008 and must be applied to outstanding instruments as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption as a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings. Early adoption is not permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of EITF 07-5.

 

4. Fair Value

On January 1, 2008, the Company adopted SFAS 157 (see Note 2). SFAS 157 establishes a framework for measuring fair value in U.S. GAAP by creating a hierarchy of fair value measurements.

The fair value hierarchy prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value by maximizing the use of observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company’s assumptions about what market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on the best information available in the circumstances. The level in the hierarchy within which a given fair value measurement falls is determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the measurement.

The Company must determine the appropriate level in the hierarchy for each financial instrument that it measures at fair value. In determining fair value, the Company uses various valuation approaches, including market, income and cost approaches. The hierarchy is broken down into three levels based on the reliability of inputs as follows:

 

   

Level 1 inputs – Unadjusted, quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access.

The Company’s financial instruments that it measures at fair value using Level 1 inputs generally include: equities listed on a major exchange and exchange traded derivatives, such as futures and options that are actively traded.

 

   

Level 2 inputs – Quoted prices in active markets for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in inactive markets and directly or indirectly observable inputs, other than quoted prices, used in industry accepted models.

The Company’s financial instruments that it measures at fair value using Level 2 inputs generally include: U.S. Treasury bonds; U.S. Government Sponsored Entities; Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Sovereign Treasury bonds; corporate and high yield corporate bonds; catastrophe bonds; mortgage-backed securities; asset-backed securities (“ABS”); foreign exchange forward contracts and over-the-counter derivatives such as foreign currency options, equity put and call options, interest rate swaps and credit default swaps.

 

   

Level 3 inputs – Unobservable inputs.

The Company’s financial instruments that it measures at fair value using Level 3 inputs generally include: unlisted equities including preference shares; unit trusts; private ABS; credit linked notes; loans receivable; total return swaps and weather derivatives.

Following the adoption of SFAS 157, there have been no material changes in the Company’s valuation techniques.

At June 30, 2008, the Company’s financial instruments measured at fair value were categorized between Levels 1, 2 and 3 as follows (in thousands of U.S. dollars):

 

     Quoted prices in
active markets for
identical assets

(Level 1)
   Significant other
observable inputs
(Level 2)
   Significant
unobservable
inputs

(Level 3)
   Total

Fixed maturities, trading securities

   $ —      $ 10,278,603    $ 9,944    $ 10,288,547

Short-term investments, trading securities.

     —        108,238      —        108,238

Equities, trading securities

     800,116      225,599      39,165      1,064,880

Other invested assets

     —        1,442      25,109      26,551
                           

Total

   $ 800,116    $ 10,613,882    $ 74,218    $ 11,488,216

 

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At June 30, 2008, the aggregate carrying amounts of items included in Other invested assets in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet that the Company did not measure at fair value were $73.1 million, which primarily related to the Company’s investments that are accounted for using the equity method of accounting or investment company accounting.

Substantially all of the accrued investment income in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of June 30, 2008 related to the Company’s fixed maturities, short-term investments and equities for which the fair value option was elected.

The following table is a reconciliation of the beginning and ending balances for all financial instruments measured at fair value using Level 3 inputs for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 (in thousands of U.S. dollars):

 

Three months ended June 30, 2008    Fixed maturities     Equities    Other invested
assets
   Total

Balance at beginning of period

   $ 11,682     $ 38,685    $ 89    $ 50,456

Realized and unrealized investment (losses) gains included in net loss

     (1,738 )     480      12,302      11,044

Net purchases, sales and settlements

     —         —        12,718      12,718
                            

Balance at end of period

   $ 9,944     $ 39,165    $ 25,109    $ 74,218

Change in unrealized investment (losses) gains relating to assets held at end of period

   $ (1,738 )   $ 480    $ 8,468    $ 7,210

 

Six months ended June 30, 2008    Fixed maturities     Equities     Other invested
assets
    Total  

Balance at beginning of period

   $ 15,166     $ 39,606     $ (14,838 )   $ 39,934  

Realized and unrealized investment (losses) gains included in net income

     (1,764 )     (441 )     10,411       8,206  

Net purchases, sales and settlements

     —         —         29,536       29,536  

Transfers out of Level 3

     (3,458 )     —         —         (3,458 )
                                

Balance at end of period

   $ 9,944     $ 39,165     $ 25,109     $ 74,218  

Change in unrealized investment (losses) gains relating to assets held at end of period

   $ (1,764 )   $ (441 )   $ 586     $ (1,619 )

Changes in the fair value of the Company’s financial instruments measured at fair value, for which the fair value option was elected, during the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 were as follows (in thousands of U.S. dollars):

 

Net realized and unrealized investment (losses) gains    For the three months
ended June 30, 2008
    For the six months
ended June 30, 2008
 

Fixed maturities, trading securities

   $ (303,100 )   $ (229,350 )

Short-term investments, trading securities

     (193 )     (315 )

Equities, trading securities

     14,784       (74,302 )
                

Total

   $ (288,509 )   $ (303,967 )

All of the above changes in fair value are included in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations under the caption Net realized and unrealized investment losses.

 

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5. Debt Related to Senior Notes

On May 27, 2008, PartnerRe Finance A LLC (PartnerRe Finance A), an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, issued $250 million aggregate principal amount of 6.875% Senior Notes (Senior Notes). The Senior Notes will mature on June 1, 2018 and may be redeemed at the option of the issuer, in whole or in part, at any time. Interest on the Senior Notes is payable semi-annually commencing on December 1, 2008, at an annual fixed rate of 6.875%, and cannot be deferred.

The Senior Notes are ranked as senior unsecured obligations of PartnerRe Finance A. The Company has fully and unconditionally guaranteed all obligations of PartnerRe Finance A under the Senior Notes. The Company’s obligations under this guarantee are senior and unsecured and rank equally with all other senior unsecured indebtedness of the Company. The proceeds from the Senior Notes were used to redeem the $220 million, 5.81% fixed rate bank loan held by PartnerRe U.S. Corporation (PartnerRe U.S. Holdings), a subsidiary of the Company, and the remaining net proceeds were used for general corporate purposes.

Contemporaneously, PartnerRe U.S. Holdings issued a 6.875% promissory note, with a principal amount of $250 million to PartnerRe Finance A. Under the term of the promissory note, PartnerRe U.S. Holdings promises to pay to PartnerRe Finance A the principal amount on June 1, 2018 unless previously paid. Interest on the promissory note is payable semi-annually commencing on December 1, 2008 at an annual fixed rate of 6.875%.

The Company does not consolidate PartnerRe Finance A, which issued the Senior Notes, as it does not meet the consolidation requirements under FIN 46(R). The Company has reflected the debt related to the Senior Notes on its Consolidated Balance Sheet.

 

6. Computation of Net Income per Common and Common Share Equivalents

The reconciliation of basic and diluted net (loss) income per share is as follows (in thousands of U.S. dollars or shares, except per share amounts):

 

     For the three
months ended
June 30,

2008
    For the three
months ended
June 30,

2007
   For the six
months ended
June 30,

2008
   For the six
months ended
June 30,

2007

Numerator:

          

Net (loss) income

   $ (26,024 )   $ 105,021    $ 102,996    $ 274,288

Less: preferred dividends

     8,631       8,631      17,263      17,263
                            

Net (loss) income available to common shareholders

   $ (34,655 )   $ 96,390    $ 85,733    $ 257,025
                            

Denominator:

          

Weighted average number of common shares outstanding—basic

     54,276.6       56,682.8      54,262.5      56,820.8

Stock options and other [1]

     —         1,465.9      1,423.1      1,352.9
                            

Weighted average number of common and common share equivalents outstanding—diluted

     54,276.6       58,148.7      55,685.6      58,173.7
                            

Basic net (loss) income per share

   $ (0.64 )   $ 1.70    $ 1.58    $ 4.52

Diluted net income per share [1]

   $ (0.64 )   $ 1.66    $ 1.54    $ 4.42

 

[1] Diluted net loss per share has not been shown for the three months ended June 30, 2008 because the effect of dilutive securities would have been anti-dilutive. Dilutive securities, under the form of stock options and others, that could potentially dilute basic net loss per share were not included in the computation of diluted net loss per share because to do so would have been anti-dilutive. The weighted average number of common and common share equivalents outstanding for the period would have amounted to 55,660.0 thousand shares if these securities had been included.

 

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7. Legal Proceedings

Legal proceedings at June 30, 2008 have not changed significantly since December 31, 2007. See Note 15(g) to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2007.

 

8. Segment Information

The Company monitors the performance of its operations in three segments, Non-life, Life and Corporate & Other. The Non-life segment is further divided into four sub-segments: U.S., Global (Non-U.S.) Property and Casualty (Global (Non-U.S.) P&C), Global (Non-U.S.) Specialty, and Catastrophe. Segments and sub-segments represent markets that are reasonably homogeneous in terms of geography, client types, buying patterns, underlying risk patterns and approach to risk management. See Note 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company’s 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information concerning the Company’s segments and sub-segments.

As a result of organizational changes, during the fourth quarter of 2007, the Company redefined its financial reporting segments. The comparative segment data that was previously presented in the Company’s Form 10-Q for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2007 has been recast to conform to the current presentation.

The following tables provide a summary of the segment revenues and results for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 (in millions of U.S. dollars, except ratios):

 

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Segment Information

For the three months ended June 30, 2008

 

     U.S.     Global
(Non-U.S.)
P&C
    Global
(Non-U.S.)
Specialty
    Catastrophe     Total
Non-life
Segment
    Life
Segment
    Corporate
and Other
    Total  

Gross premiums written

   $ 254     $ 134     $ 291     $ 145     $ 824     $ 138     $ 6     $ 968  

Net premiums written

   $ 246     $ 132     $ 291     $ 145     $ 814     $ 136     $ 6     $ 956  

Decrease (increase) in unearned premiums

     39       54       (19 )     (80 )     (6 )     10       (4 )     —    
                                                                

Net premiums earned

   $ 285     $ 186     $ 272     $ 65     $ 808     $ 146     $ 2     $ 956  

Losses and loss expenses and life policy benefits

     (227 )     (87 )     (144 )     20       (438 )     (111 )     —         (549 )

Acquisition costs

     (64 )     (48 )     (75 )     (7 )     (194 )     (34 )     —         (228 )
                                                                

Technical result

   $ (6 )   $ 51     $ 53     $ 78     $ 176     $ 1     $ 2     $ 179  

Other income

             2       —         3       5  

Other operating expenses

             (63 )     (12 )     (22 )     (97 )
                                        

Underwriting result

           $ 115     $ (11 )     n/a     $ 87  

Net investment income

               18       127       145  
                                  

Allocated underwriting result (1)

             $ 7       n/a       n/a  

Net realized and unrealized investment losses

                 (296 )     (296 )

Interest expense

                 (15 )     (15 )

Net foreign exchange gains

                 2       2  

Income tax benefit

                 53       53  

Interest in losses of equity investments

                 (2 )     (2 )
                            

Net loss

                 n/a     $ (26 )
                            

Loss ratio (2)

     79.6 %     46.7 %     52.8 %     (30.7 )%     54.2 %      

Acquisition ratio (3)

     22.7       25.6       27.7       10.2       24.0        
                                              

Technical ratio (4)

     102.3 %     72.3 %     80.5 %     (20.5 )%     78.2 %      

Other operating expense ratio (5)

             7.7        
                      

Combined ratio (6)

             85.9 %      
                      

 

(1) Allocated underwriting result is defined as net premiums earned, other income or loss and allocated net investment income less life policy benefits, acquisition costs and other operating expenses.
(2) Loss ratio is obtained by dividing losses and loss expenses by net premiums earned.
(3) Acquisition ratio is obtained by dividing acquisition costs by net premiums earned.
(4) Technical ratio is defined as the sum of the loss ratio and the acquisition ratio.
(5) Other operating expense ratio is obtained by dividing other operating expenses by net premiums earned.
(6) Combined ratio is defined as the sum of the technical ratio and the other operating expense ratio.

 

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Segment Information

For the three months ended June 30, 2007

 

     U.S.     Global
(Non-U.S.)
P&C
    Global
(Non-U.S.)
Specialty
    Catastrophe     Total
Non-life
Segment
    Life
Segment
    Corporate
and Other
(A)
    Total  

Gross premiums written

   $ 229     $ 129     $ 275     $ 131     $ 764     $ 144     $ —       $ 908  

Net premiums written

   $ 229     $ 127     $ 275     $ 132     $ 763     $ 136     $ —       $ 899  

Decrease (increase) in unearned premiums

     12       46       (10 )     (66 )     (18 )     7       1       (10 )
                                                                

Net premiums earned

   $ 241     $ 173     $ 265     $ 66     $ 745     $ 143     $ 1     $ 889  

Losses and loss expenses and life policy benefits

     (150 )     (131 )     (110 )     (16 )     (407 )     (117 )     —         (524 )

Acquisition costs

     (56 )     (44 )     (70 )     (7 )     (177 )     (29 )     —         (206 )
                                                                

Technical result

   $ 35     $ (2 )   $ 85     $ 43     $ 161     $ (3 )   $ 1     $ 159  

Other income (loss)

             2       —         (11 )     (9 )

Other operating expenses

             (52 )     (8 )     (20 )     (80 )
                                        

Underwriting result

           $ 111     $ (11 )     n/a     $ 70  

Net investment income

               15       116       131  
                                  

Allocated underwriting result (1)

             $ 4       n/a       n/a  

Net realized investment losses

                 (54 )     (54 )

Interest expense

                 (13 )     (13 )

Net foreign exchange losses

                 (9 )     (9 )

Income tax expense

                 (23 )     (23 )

Interest in earnings of equity investments

                 3       3  
                            

Net income

                 n/a     $ 105  
                            

Loss ratio (2)

     62.1 %     75.6 %     41.4 %     24.7 %     54.6 %      

Acquisition ratio (3)

     23.5       25.6       26.2       10.0       23.7        
                                              

Technical ratio (4)

     85.6 %     101.2 %     67.6 %     34.7 %     78.3 %      

Other operating expense ratio (5)

             7.0        
                      

Combined ratio (6)

             85.3 %      
                      

 

(A) The Company reports the results of ChannelRe Holdings on a one-quarter lag. The three months ended June 30, 2007 include the Company’s share of ChannelRe Holdings’ net income in the amount of $3.2 million for the period from January 1, 2007 to March 31, 2007.

 

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Segment Information

For the six months ended June 30, 2008

 

     U.S.     Global
(Non-U.S.)
P&C
    Global
(Non-U.S.)
Specialty
    Catastrophe     Total
Non-life
Segment
    Life
Segment
    Corporate
and Other
    Total  

Gross premiums written

   $ 586     $ 509     $ 645     $ 343     $ 2,083     $ 313     $ 11     $ 2,407  

Net premiums written

   $ 578     $ 505     $ 624     $ 343     $ 2,050     $ 307     $ 11     $ 2,368  

Increase in unearned premiums

     (27 )     (118 )     (134 )     (201 )     (480 )     (16 )     (7 )     (503 )
                                                                

Net premiums earned

   $ 551     $ 387     $ 490     $ 142     $ 1,570     $ 291     $ 4     $ 1,865  

Losses and loss expenses and life policy benefits

     (398 )     (234 )     (291 )     18       (905 )     (233 )     —         (1,138 )

Acquisition costs

     (131 )     (100 )     (129 )     (13 )     (373 )     (59 )     —         (432 )
                                                                

Technical result

   $ 22     $ 53     $ 70     $ 147     $ 292     $ (1 )   $ 4     $ 295  

Other income

             3       —         3       6  

Other operating expenses

             (120 )     (21 )     (48 )     (189 )
                                        

Underwriting result

           $ 175     $ (22 )     n/a     $ 112  

Net investment income

               33       249       282  
                                  

Allocated underwriting result (1)

             $ 11       n/a       n/a  

Net realized and unrealized investment losses

                 (271 )     (271 )

Interest expense

                 (27 )     (27 )

Net foreign exchange losses

                 (3 )     (3 )

Income tax benefit

                 11       11  

Interest in losses of equity investments

                 (1 )     (1 )
                            

Net income

                 n/a     $ 103  
                            

Loss ratio (2)

     72.2 %     60.6 %     59.5 %     (12.9 )%     57.6 %      

Acquisition ratio (3)

     23.7       25.7       26.3       9.6       23.8        
                                              

Technical ratio (4)

     95.9 %     86.3 %     85.8 %     (3.3 )%     81.4 %      

Other operating expense ratio (5)

             7.6        
                      

Combined ratio (6)

             89.0 %      
                      

 

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Segment Information

For the six months ended June 30, 2007

 

     U.S.     Global
(Non-U.S.)
P&C
    Global
(Non-U.S.)
Specialty
    Catastrophe     Total
Non-life
Segment
    Life
Segment
    Corporate
and Other
(B)
    Total  

Gross premiums written

   $ 524     $ 462     $ 580     $ 343     $ 1,909     $ 300     $ 1     $ 2,210  

Net premiums written

   $ 523     $ 459     $ 560     $ 343     $ 1,885     $ 283     $ 1     $ 2,169  

Increase in unearned premiums

     (61 )     (110 )     (74 )     (183 )     (428 )     (10 )     —         (438 )
                                                                

Net premiums earned

   $ 462     $ 349     $ 486     $ 160     $ 1,457     $ 273     $ 1     $ 1,731  

Losses and loss expenses and life policy benefits

     (287 )     (249 )     (209 )     (45 )     (790 )     (213 )     —         (1,003 )

Acquisition costs

     (114 )     (90 )     (127 )     (16 )     (347 )     (60 )     —         (407 )
                                                                

Technical result

   $ 61     $ 10     $ 150     $ 99     $ 320     $ —       $ 1     $ 321  

Other income (loss)

             4       —         (12 )     (8 )

Other operating expenses

             (104 )     (15 )     (40 )     (159 )
                                        

Underwriting result

           $ 220     $ (15 )     n/a     $ 154  

Net investment income

               26       224       250  
                                  

Allocated underwriting result (1)

             $ 11       n/a       n/a  

Net realized investment losses

                 (53 )     (53 )

Interest expense

                 (27 )     (27 )

Net foreign exchange losses

                 (13 )     (13 )

Income tax expense

                 (43 )     (43 )

Interest in earnings of equity investments

                 6       6  
                            

Net income

                 n/a     $ 274  
                            

Loss ratio (2)

     62.1 %     71.2 %     43.1 %     28.2 %     54.2 %      

Acquisition ratio (3)

     24.6       25.7       26.0       10.2       23.8        
                                              

Technical ratio (4)

     86.7 %     96.9 %     69.1 %     38.4 %     78.0 %      

Other operating expense ratio (5)

             7.1        
                      

Combined ratio (6)

             85.1 %      
                      

 

(B) The Company reports the results of ChannelRe Holdings on a one-quarter lag. The six months ended June 30, 2007 include the Company’s share of ChannelRe Holdings’ net income in the amount of $6.1 million for the period from October 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007.

 

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9. Summarized Financial Information of ChannelRe Holdings

The following tables provide summarized financial information for ChannelRe Holdings, which is accounted for using the equity method. The Company’s investment represents 20% of the common shares of Channel Reinsurance Ltd. (Channel Reinsurance), which is a subsidiary and the primary asset of ChannelRe Holdings. The Company calculates its share of ChannelRe Holdings’ results on a one-quarter lag.

At December 31, 2007, the Company reduced its carrying value of ChannelRe Holdings to $nil to reflect unrealized mark-to-market losses on Channel Reinsurance’s credit derivative portfolio, which Channel Reinsurance expected to incur during the three month period ended December 31, 2007, and which were expected to result in Channel Reinsurance having negative U.S. GAAP shareholders’ equity at that date. Channel Reinsurance’s financial statements as of December 31, 2007 and March 31, 2008 did present negative U.S. GAAP shareholders’ equity, and accordingly at June 30, 2008, the carrying value of the Company’s investment in ChannelRe Holdings remains $nil.

As ChannelRe Holdings has a financial year-end of December 31, this quarterly data is not presented in the annual financial statements of ChannelRe Holdings.

Balance Sheet Data (in millions of U.S. dollars):

 

     March 31,
2008
    September 30,
2007

Total investments available for sale

   $ 692     $ 638

Cash and cash equivalents

     7       19

Deferred acquisition costs

     36       38

Derivative assets

     70       20

Other assets

     13       11
              

Total assets

   $ 818     $ 726

Deferred premium revenue

   $ 138     $ 151

Loss and loss adjustment expense reserves

     37       28

Derivative liabilities

     966       111

Other liabilities

     4       6
              

Total liabilities

     1,145       296

Minority interest

     (91 )     120

Shareholders’ (deficit) equity

     (236 )     310
              

Total liabilities, minority interest and shareholders’ (deficit) equity

   $ 818     $ 726

Income Statement Data (in millions of U.S. dollars):

 

     For the three
months ended
March 31,

2008
    For the three
months ended
March 31,

2007
    For the six
months from
October 1, 2007
to March 31, 2008
    For the six
months from
October 1, 2006
to March 31, 2007
 

Premiums earned

   $ 10     $ 17     $ 27     $ 31  

Net investment income

     7       7       15       14  
                                

Total revenues

     17       24       42       45  

Losses incurred

     1       2       12       3  

Acquisition costs

     2       4       6       8  

Other expenses

     2       2       (1 )     4  
                                

Total expenses

     5       8       17       15  

Net realized gains on investments

     4       —         4       1  

Net losses on derivative instruments and foreign exchange

     (198 )     —         (799 )     —    
                                

Net realized and unrealized (losses) gains

     (194 )     —         (795 )     1  

Minority interest

     51       (4 )     215       (9 )
                                

Net (loss) income

   $ (131 )   $ 12     $ (555 )   $ 22  

 

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10. Subsequent Events

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

On July 31, 2008, the Company amended its existing forward sale agreement (see Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2007). Under the terms of the amendment, half the contract will mature according to its original term beginning on September 26, 2008, while the remaining half is extended to April 2010.

The extension, with an affiliate of Citigroup Global Markets Inc. (the forward counterparty), allows the Company to deliver 3,366,295 of the 6,732,590 common shares subject to the original contract to the forward counterparty at any time during the term of the agreement, which will mature beginning on April 28, 2010. The future sale price of the Company’s common shares under the amended half of the forward sale agreement is subject to a minimum price per share of $59.41 and a maximum price per share of $84.51. The future sale price under the half of the contract that is not being extended is unchanged at a minimum price per share of $59.41 and a maximum price per share of $79.63.

Long-Term Debt

Additionally, on July 31, 2008, the Company also entered into an amendment (Loan Amendment) to the loan agreement, dated as of October 25, 2005, among us, as borrower, Citibank, N.A., as administrative agent, and Citibank, N.A., as lender, which originally evidenced a three-and-a-half-year term loan agreement with Citibank, N.A (see Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2007). Under the terms of the Loan Amendment, the maturity of half of the original $400 million long-term debt is extended to July 12, 2010. The remaining half of the original long-term debt will retain its original maturity of April 27, 2009.

Under the Loan Amendment, the amended half of the long-term debt will bear interest quarterly at a floating rate of 3-month LIBOR plus 0.50% through April 27, 2009 and at a rate of 3-month LIBOR plus 0.85% thereafter. The interest rate on the unamended half of the long-term debt will remain unchanged at 3-month LIBOR plus 0.50%.

The loan is otherwise unchanged.

Common Share Repurchase

On July 30, 2008, the Company repurchased 1.0 million of its common shares for a total cost of approximately $70 million, pursuant to its currently effective share repurchase authorization. Following this repurchase, the Company has approximately 2.9 million common shares remaining under its current share repurchase authorization which was made effective in November 2007.

 

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ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Executive Overview

The Company is a leading global reinsurer with a broadly diversified portfolio of risks. The Company writes all lines of business in virtually all markets worldwide, and differentiates itself through its approach to risk, its strategy to manage risk, and its financial strength. Through its broad product and geographic diversification, its excellent execution capabilities and its local presence in most major markets, the Company is able to respond quickly to market needs and capitalize on business opportunities virtually anywhere in the world.

Reinsurance is, by its nature, a risk assumption business. The Company’s business is to assume its clients’ risks, thereby removing the volatility associated with these risks from the clients’ financial statements, and then to manage those risks and the risk-related volatility. The Company’s ability to succeed in the risk assumption business is dependent on its ability to accurately analyze and quantify risk, to understand volatility and how risks aggregate or correlate.

See the Executive Overview, Key Financial Measures and Other Key Issues of Management in Item 7 of Part II of the Company’s 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Risk Management

The Company’s risk management framework encompasses all the meaningful risks faced by the Company. See Executive Overview – Other Key Issues of Management – Risk Management in Item 7 of Part II of the Company’s 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K for a complete description of the Company’s risks, risk management framework and the related risk management strategies and controls.

The Company manages its assumed risks through diversification, risk appetite for different risk classes and absolute limits on any one risk. The Company accepts that results on a quarterly basis may be volatile; however, it seeks to protect itself from downside risk that can materially impair its balance sheet. The limits imposed represent the boundaries of risk tolerance and are based on the amount of capital that may be lost over the return period.

The major risks to the Company’s balance sheet are typically due to events that Management refers to as shock losses. The Company defines a shock loss as an event that has the potential to materially damage economic value. The Company defines its economic value as the difference between the net present value of tangible assets and the net present value of liabilities, using appropriate risk discount rates. For traded assets, the calculated net present values are equivalent to market values.

There are three areas of risk that the Company has currently identified as having the greatest potential for shock losses. These are catastrophe, reserving for casualty and other long-tail lines, and equity investment risk. The Company manages the risk of shock losses by setting limits on its tolerance for specific risks and on the amount of capital that it is willing to expose to such risks. The Company establishes limits to manage the absolute maximum foreseeable loss from any one event and considers the possibility that several shock losses could occur at one time, for example a major catastrophe event accompanied by a collapse in the equity markets. Management believes that the limits that it has placed on shock losses will allow the Company to continue writing business in such an event.

Other risks such as interest rate risk and credit risk have the ability to impact results substantially and may result in volatility in results from quarter to quarter, but Management believes that by themselves, they are unlikely to represent a material downside threat to the Company’s long-term economic value. See Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk in Item 3 of Part I of this report for additional disclosure on interest rate risk, foreign currency risk, credit risk and equity price risk.

 

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The limits and actual exposures of the Company for its three major risks at June 30, 2008 and December 31, 2007 were as follows:

 

Risk

   Limit    Utilized at
June 30, 2008
   Utilized at
December 31, 2007

Catastrophe risk – largest zonal limit

   $   1.4 billion    $ 1.3 billion    $ 1.3 billion

Catastrophe risk – one in 75 year modeled economic loss, aggregate

     1.0 billion      826 million      680 million

Casualty reserving risk – total earned premiums for casualty and other long-tail lines for the four most recent underwriting periods

     4.2 billion      3.0 billion      3.0 billion

Equity investment risk – value of equity and equity-like securities

     2.8 billion      1.2 billion      1.4 billion

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates of the Company at June 30, 2008 have not changed materially compared to December 31, 2007. See the Company’s Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Item 7 of Part II of the Company’s 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following discussion updates specific information related to the Company’s estimates for losses and loss expenses and life policy benefits and fair value.

Losses and Loss Expenses and Life Policy Benefits

Losses and Loss Expenses

Because a significant amount of time can lapse between the assumption of risk, occurrence of a loss event, the reporting of the event to an insurance company (the primary company or the cedant), the subsequent reporting to the reinsurance company (the reinsurer) and the ultimate payment of the claim on the loss event by the reinsurer, the Company’s liability for unpaid losses and loss expenses (loss reserves) is based largely upon estimates. The Company categorizes loss reserves into three types of reserves: reported outstanding loss reserves (case reserves), additional case reserves (ACRs) and incurred but not reported (IBNR) reserves. The Company updates its estimates for each of the aforementioned categories on a quarterly basis using information received from cedants. The Company also estimates the future unallocated loss adjustment expenses (ULAE) associated with the loss reserves and these form part of the Company’s loss adjustment expense reserves. The Company’s Non-life loss reserves for each category and sub-segment are reported in the table included later in this section.

The amount of time that elapses before a claim is reported to the cedant and then subsequently reported to the reinsurer is commonly referred to in the industry as the reporting tail. For all lines, the Company’s objective is to estimate ultimate losses and loss expenses. Total loss reserves are then calculated by subtracting losses paid. Similarly, IBNR reserves are calculated by subtraction of case reserves and ACRs from total loss reserves.

The Company analyzes its ultimate losses and loss expenses after consideration of the loss experience of various reserving cells. The Company assigns treaties to reserving cells and allocates losses from the treaty to the reserving cell. The reserving cells are selected in order to ensure that the underlying treaties have homogeneous loss development characteristics (e.g., reporting tail) but are large enough to make estimation of trends credible. The selection of reserving cells is reviewed annually and changes over time as the business of the Company evolves. For each reserving cell, the Company’s estimates of loss reserves are reached after a review of the results of several commonly accepted actuarial projection methodologies. In selecting its best estimate, the Company considers the appropriateness of each methodology to the individual circumstances of the cell and underwriting year for which the projection is made.

See Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates—Losses and Loss Expenses and Life Policy Benefits in Item 7 of Part II in the Company’s 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information on the reserving methodologies employed by the Company, the principal reserving methods used for the reserving lines, the principal parameter assumptions underlying the methods and the main underlying factors upon which the estimates of reserving parameters are predicated.

The Company’s best estimate of total loss reserves is typically in excess of the midpoint of the actuarial reserve estimates. The Company believes that there is potentially significant risk in estimating loss reserves for long-tail lines of business and for immature underwriting years that may not be adequately captured through traditional actuarial projection methodologies. In selecting its best estimate of future liabilities, the Company considers both the results of actuarial point estimates of loss reserves as well as the potential variability of these estimates as captured by a reasonable range of actuarial reserve estimates. Selected reserves are always within the indicated reasonable range of estimates indicated by the Company’s actuaries.

 

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During the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007, the Company reviewed its estimate for prior year losses for each sub-segment of the Non-life segment and, in light of developing data, determined to adjust its ultimate loss ratios for prior accident years. The following table summarizes the net favorable reserve development for the Company’s Non-life segment for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 (in millions of U.S. dollars):

 

     For the three
months ended
June 30,
2008
   For the three
months ended
June 30,
2007
   For the six
months ended
June 30,
2008
   For the six
months ended
June 30,
2007

Prior year favorable loss development:

           

Non-life segment

           

U.S.

   $ 22    $ 18    $ 38    $ 30

Global (Non-U.S.) P&C

     52      20      110      60

Global (Non-U.S.) Specialty

     32      57      65      116

Catastrophe

     24      12      34      23
                           

Total prior year loss development

   $ 130    $ 107    $ 247    $ 229

The net favorable loss development on prior accident years of $130 million and $247 million recorded in the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008, respectively, resulted from a reassessment of approximately $137 million and $223 million, respectively, of loss development assumptions used by the Company to estimate future liabilities due to favorable loss emergence, as losses reported by cedants, including treaties where the risk period expired, were lower than expected. The impact of the reassessment of loss development assumptions was partially offset by approximately $7 million related to change in exposure due to upward premium adjustments in the three months ended June 30, 2008 and was supplemented by approximately $24 million related to change in exposure due to downward premium adjustments in the six months ended June 30, 2008.

The net favorable loss development on prior accident years of $107 million and $229 million recorded in the three months and six months ended June 30, 2007, respectively, resulted from a reassessment of approximately $119 million and $219 million, respectively, of loss development assumptions used by the Company to estimate future liabilities due to favorable loss emergence, as losses reported by cedants, including treaties where the risk period expired, were lower than expected. The impact of the reassessment of loss development assumptions was partially offset by approximately $12 million related to a change in exposure due to upward premium adjustments in the three months ended June 30, 2007 and was supplemented by approximately $10 million related to change in exposure due to downward premium adjustments in the six months ended June 30, 2007.

For a discussion of prior year net favorable reserve development by Non-life sub-segment, see Results by Segment below. See Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates—Losses and Loss Expenses and Life Policy Benefits in Item 7 of Part II of the Company’s 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information by reserving lines.

Case reserves are reported to the Company by its cedants, while ACRs and IBNR are estimated by the Company. The following table shows the gross reserves reported by cedants (case reserves), those estimated by the Company (ACRs and IBNR) and the total net loss reserves recorded as of June 30, 2008 for each Non-life sub-segment (in millions of U.S. dollars):

 

     Case reserves    ACRs    IBNR
reserves
   Total gross
loss reserves
recorded
   Ceded loss
reserves
    Total net
loss reserves
recorded

U.S.

   $ 674    $ 134    $ 1,867    $ 2,675    $ (30 )   $ 2,645

Global (Non-U.S.) P&C

     1,422      14      1,222      2,658      (46 )     2,612

Global (Non-U.S.) Specialty

     1,022      33      994      2,049      (57 )     1,992

Catastrophe

     80      124      28      232      —         232
                                          

Total Non-life

   $ 3,198    $ 305    $ 4,111    $ 7,614    $ (133 )   $ 7,481

The net loss reserves represent the Company’s best estimate of future losses and loss expense amounts based on information available as of June 30, 2008. Loss reserves are estimates involving actuarial and statistical projections at a given time to reflect the Company’s expectations of the costs of the ultimate settlement and administration of claims. The estimates are continually reviewed and the ultimate liability may be in excess of, or less than, the amounts provided, for which any adjustments will be reflected in the period in which the need for an adjustment is identified. The Company estimates its net loss reserves using single actuarial point estimates. Ranges around these actuarial point estimates are developed using stochastic simulations and techniques and provide an indication as to the degree of variability of the loss reserves. The Company interprets the ranges produced by these techniques as confidence intervals around the Company’s best estimates for each Non-life sub-segment. However, due to the inherent volatility in the business written by the Company, there can be no assurance that the final settlement of the loss reserves will fall within these ranges.

 

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The actuarial point estimates recorded by the Company, and the range of estimates around these point estimates at June 30, 2008, were as follows for each Non-life sub-segment (in millions of U.S. dollars):

 

     Recorded Point
Estimate
   High    Low

Net Non-life segment loss reserves:

        

U.S.

   $ 2,645    $ 2,914    $ 1,990

Global (Non-U.S.) P&C

     2,612      2,755      2,246

Global (Non-U.S.) Specialty

     1,992      2,091      1,714

Catastrophe

     232      241      203

It is not appropriate to add together the ranges of each sub-segment in an effort to determine a high and low range around the Company’s total Non-life carried loss reserves.

Beginning in 2007, the industry started to recognize an increased likelihood of losses associated with sub-prime mortgage related risk exposures. The majority of the Company’s underwriting exposure related to this issue, if any, arises from business written in U.S. specialty casualty, primarily directors and officers exposures, during the underwriting years 2005, 2006 and 2007. The Company also has potential exposure, to a lesser extent, to this issue arising from business written in U.S. surety and Global (Non-U.S.) specialty casualty. Given the information available to date, ultimate losses from this event, if any, cannot be estimated by standard actuarial techniques. To estimate a range of potential losses, the Company performed analyses based on information received from cedants at the time the exposed business was written, current industry data regarding the likelihood of securities class actions and other potential suits against companies exposed more directly to sub-prime mortgages, estimates of exposed industry premium, estimates of the Company’s market share of exposed industry premium and estimates of industry-wide insured losses. A significant degree of judgment was used to estimate the range of potential losses and there is a considerable degree of uncertainty related to the range of potential ultimate liabilities.

Based on information currently available and the range of potential estimated ultimate liabilities, the Company believes that the unpaid loss and loss expense reserves for U.S. specialty casualty and other potentially exposed classes of business contemplate a reasonable provision for exposures related to potential sub-prime mortgage risks. The Company is unaware of any specific issues that would materially affect its unpaid losses and loss expense estimates related to this exposure.

Life Policy Benefits

Policy benefits for life and annuity contracts relate to the business in the Company’s Life operations, which predominately include reinsurance of longevity, subdivided into standard and non-standard annuities, and mortality business, which includes traditional death and disability covers (with various riders), term assurance and critical illness (TCI) written in the UK and Ireland, and guaranteed minimum death benefit (GMDB) written in Continental Europe.

The Company categorizes life reserves into three types of reserves: reported outstanding loss reserves (case reserves), incurred but not reported (IBNR) reserves and reserves for future policy benefits. Such liabilities are established based on methods and underlying assumptions in accordance with U.S. GAAP and applicable actuarial standards. Principal assumptions used in the establishment of reserves for future policy benefits have been determined based upon information reported by cedants, supplemented by the Company’s estimates of mortality, morbidity, persistency, expenses and future investment income, with appropriate provision to reflect uncertainty.

For the traditional life portfolio, case reserves, IBNR reserves and reserves for future policy benefits are mainly calculated at the treaty level. The Company updates its estimates for each of the aforementioned categories on a quarterly basis using information received from its cedants.

For the products that are covered by the long duration provisions of SFAS No. 60 “Accounting and Reporting by Insurance Enterprises” (SFAS 60), a reserve adequacy test is performed at least once a year based on the latest best estimate assumptions by line of business, including an experience analysis and a review of likely future experience. If such review produces reserves in excess of those currently held, then the locked-in assumptions will be revised and a loss recognized.

See Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates—Losses and Loss Expenses and Life Policy Benefits in Item 7 of Part II in the Company’s 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information on the reserving methodologies employed by the Company for its longevity and mortality lines.

The Life segment reported net favorable development on prior accident years of less than $1 million during the three months ended June 30, 2008 and net adverse development on prior accident years of $5 million during the six months ended June 30, 2008, primarily due to certain GMDB treaties where the payout was linked to the performance of the underlying capital markets. For the three months

 

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ended June 30, 2007, the Life segment reported net adverse development of $2 million which was due to net adverse development in the longevity line being partially offset by net favorable development in the mortality and health lines. For the six months ended June 30, 2007, the Life segment reported net favorable development on prior accident years of $5 million which was predominately due to net favorable reserve development on traditional mortality products, partially offset by net adverse development in the longevity line.

Fair Value Measurements

Fair Value

Effective January 1, 2008, the Company adopted Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Statement No. 157, “Fair Value Measurements” (SFAS 157). SFAS 157 defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosures regarding fair value measurements. SFAS 157 defines fair value as the price received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. SFAS 157 provides guidance on how to measure the fair value of financial instruments according to a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the information used to measure fair value into three broad levels. SFAS 157 broadly applies to most existing pronouncements that require or permit fair value measurements (including both financial and non-financial assets and liabilities) but does not require any new fair value measurements. The adoption of SFAS 157 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated shareholders’ equity or net income.

SFAS 157 establishes a framework for measuring fair value in U.S. GAAP by creating a hierarchy of fair value measurements. The fair value hierarchy prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value by maximizing the use of observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company’s assumptions about what market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on the best information available in the circumstances. The level in the hierarchy within which a given fair value measurement falls is determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the measurement.

The Company must determine the appropriate level in the hierarchy for each financial instrument that it measures at fair value. In determining fair value, the Company uses various valuation approaches, including market, income and cost approaches. The hierarchy is broken down into three levels based on the reliability of inputs as follows:

 

   

Level 1 inputs – Unadjusted, quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access.

The Company’s financial instruments that it measures at fair value using Level 1 inputs generally include: equities listed on a major exchange and exchange traded derivatives, such as futures and options that are actively traded.

 

   

Level 2 inputs – Quoted prices in active markets for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in inactive markets and directly or indirectly observable inputs, other than quoted prices, used in industry accepted models.

The Company’s financial instruments that it measures at fair value using Level 2 inputs generally include: U.S. Treasury bonds; U.S. Government Sponsored Entities; Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Sovereign Treasury bonds; corporate and high yield corporate bonds; catastrophe bonds; mortgage-backed securities; asset-backed securities (“ABS”); foreign exchange forward contracts and over-the-counter derivatives such as foreign currency options, equity put and call options, interest rate swaps and credit default swaps.

 

   

Level 3 inputs – Unobservable inputs.

The Company’s financial instruments that it measures at fair value using Level 3 inputs generally include: unlisted equities including preference shares; unit trusts; private ABS; credit linked notes; loans receivable; total return swaps and weather derivatives.

Following the adoption of SFAS 157, there have been no material changes in the Company’s valuation techniques.

At June 30, 2008, the Company’s financial instruments measured at fair value were categorized between Levels 1, 2 and 3 as follows (in thousands of U.S. dollars):

 

     Quoted prices in
active markets for
identical assets
(Level 1)
   Significant other
observable inputs
(Level 2)
   Significant
unobservable
inputs
(Level 3)
   Total

Fixed maturities, trading securities

   $ —      $ 10,278,603    $ 9,944    $ 10,288,547

Short-term investments, trading securities.

     —        108,238      —        108,238

Equities, trading securities

     800,116      225,599      39,165      1,064,880

Other invested assets

     —        1,442      25,109      26,551
                           

Total

   $ 800,116    $ 10,613,882    $ 74,218    $ 11,488,216

 

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At June 30, 2008, the aggregate carrying amounts of items included in Other invested assets in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet that the Company did not measure at fair value were $73.1 million, which primarily related to the Company’s investments that are accounted for using the equity method of accounting or investment company accounting.

Fixed maturities and short-term investments

Substantially all of the Company’s fixed maturities and short-term investments are categorized as Level 2 within the SFAS 157 hierarchy. The Company receives prices from independent pricing sources to measure the fair values of its fixed maturity investments. The independent pricing sources (which include Merrill Lynch Index, Citigroup Index, and Interactive Data Corp.) obtain market quotations and actual transaction prices for securities that have quoted prices in active markets. Each source has its own proprietary method for determining the fair value of securities that are not actively traded. In general, these methods involve the use of “matrix pricing” in which the independent pricing source applies the credit spread for a comparable security that has traded recently to the current yield curve to determine a reasonable fair market value. When fair market values are unavailable from these independent pricing sources, quotes are obtained directly from broker-dealers who are active in the corresponding markets. In instances where the quoted external price for a security uses significant unobservable inputs, the Company will categorize that security as Level 3. For all fixed maturity investments, the bid price is used for estimating fair value.

To validate prices, the Company compares the fair value estimates to its knowledge of the current market and will investigate prices which are considered not to be representative of fair value. The Company also reviews an internally generated fixed maturity price validation report which converts prices received for fixed maturity investments from the independent pricing sources and from broker-dealers quotes and plots option adjusted spreads (OAS) and duration on a sector and rating basis. The OAS is calculated using established algorithms developed by an independent risk analytics platform vendor. The OAS on the fixed maturity price validation report are compared for securities in a similar sector and having a similar rating, and outliers are identified and investigated for price reasonableness. In addition, the Company completes quantitative analyses to compare the performance of each fixed maturity investment portfolio to the performance of an appropriate benchmark, with significant differences identified and investigated.

Equities

Substantially all of the Company’s equities are categorized as either Level 1 or Level 2 within the SFAS 157 hierarchy. For equities categorized as Level 1, the Company receives prices based on closing exchange prices from independent pricing sources to measure fair values. Equities categorized as Level 2 are generally mutual funds invested in securities other than the common stock of publicly traded companies (such as emerging market debt funds or bank loan funds). These funds provide daily net asset values which the Company uses in determining fair value for these investments. For funds where the net asset value is not provided on a daily basis, the asset is classified as Level 3.

To validate prices, the Company completes quantitative analyses to compare the performance of each equity investment portfolio to the performance of an appropriate benchmark, with significant differences identified and investigated.

Other invested assets

The Company’s foreign exchange forward contracts, foreign currency option contracts, equity put and call options, interest rate swaps and credit default swaps are categorized as Level 2 within the SFAS 157 fair value hierarchy. Included within the Company’s Level 3 categorization are total return swaps, weather derivatives, private placement equity and private placement notes, loans or asset backed securities. The Company will generally either (i) receive a price based on a manager’s or trustee’s valuation for the asset; or (ii) develop an internal discounted cash flow model to measure fair value. Where the Company receives prices from the manager or trustee, these prices are based on the manager’s or trustee’s estimate of fair value for the assets and are generally audited on an annual basis. Where the Company develops its own discounted cash flow models, the inputs will be specific to the asset in question, based on appropriate historical information, adjusted as necessary, and using appropriate discount rates.

To validate prices, the Company will compare them to benchmarks, where appropriate, or to the business results generally within that asset class and specifically to those particular assets.

In addition, the fair value measurements of all investments categorized as Level 3 within the SFAS 157 hierarchy are presented to, and peer reviewed by, an internal valuation committee that the Company has established.

 

23


Table of Contents

Fair Value Option

Effective January 1, 2008, the Company adopted FASB Statement No. 159, “The Fair Value Option for Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities—Including an amendment of FASB Statement No. 115” (SFAS 159). SFAS 159 allows entities to choose, at specified election dates, to measure eligible financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value that are not otherwise required to be measured at fair value. Following the election of the fair value option for an eligible item, changes in that item’s fair value in subsequent reporting periods must be recognized in earnings. SFAS 159 also establishes presentation and disclosure requirements designed to draw comparisons between entities that elect different measurement attributes for similar assets and liabilities.

Under the provisions of SFAS 159, the Company elected the fair value option for all of its fixed maturities, short-term investments, equities and other invested assets (including swaps and derivatives but excluding certain other invested assets, such as those that are accounted for using the equity method of accounting).

On adoption of SFAS 159, the Company recorded a cumulative effect adjustment of $106.0 million, net of taxes, which decreased accumulated other comprehensive income and increased opening retained earnings as of January 1, 2008. The adoption did not have any impact on the Company’s consolidated net income, shareholders’ equity nor its comprehensive income.

Following the adoption of SFAS 159, all of the Company’s fixed maturities, short-term investments and equities that were previously classified as available for sale securities, as well as other invested assets, are reported as trading securities. Trading securities are carried at fair value with changes in fair value included in net realized and unrealized investment gains and losses in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. As a consequence, the Company is no longer required to perform an analysis of its investments for other-than-temporary impairment.

The Company believes that accounting for its investments as trading, with all changes in fair value included in net income, provides a better presentation of the Company’s total return on its investments and also removes an element of management judgment from the preparation of its financial statements by no longer requiring an assessment of its investments for other-than-temporary impairment.

Results of Operations—for the Three Months and Six Months Ended June 30, 2008 and 2007

The following discussion of Results of Operations contains forward-looking statements based upon assumptions and expectations concerning the potential effect of future events that are subject to uncertainties. See Item 1A of Part 1 of the Company’s 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K for a review of important risk factors. Any of these risk factors could cause actual results to differ materially from those reflected in such forward-looking statements.

The Company’s reporting currency is the U.S. dollar. The Company’s subsidiaries and branches have one of the following functional currencies: U.S. dollar, euro or Canadian dollar. As a significant portion of the Company’s operations is transacted in foreign currencies, fluctuations in foreign exchange rates may affect period-to-period comparisons. To the extent that fluctuations in foreign exchange rates affect comparisons, their impact has been quantified, when possible, and discussed in each of the relevant sections. See Note 2(j) to Consolidated Financial Statements in the Company’s 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of translation of foreign currencies.

The foreign exchange fluctuations for the principal currencies in which the Company transacts business, were as follows:

 

   

the U.S. dollar weakened, on average, against most currencies, in the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same periods in 2007; and

 

   

the U.S. dollar weakened against the euro and other currencies, except for the Canadian dollar and the British pound, at June 30, 2008 compared to December 31, 2007.

Overview

The Company measures its performance in several ways. Among the performance measures accepted under U.S. GAAP is diluted net income per share, a measure that focuses on the return provided to the Company’s common shareholders. Diluted net income (loss) per share is obtained by dividing net income (loss) available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common and common share equivalents outstanding. Net income (loss) available to common shareholders is defined as net income (loss) less preferred share dividends. As the effect of dilutive securities would have been anti-dilutive due to the Company’s reported net loss for the three months ended June 30, 2008, the fully diluted per share figure was calculated using the basic weighted average number of common shares outstanding for that period.

 

24


Table of Contents

As the Company’s reinsurance operations are exposed to low-frequency high-severity risk events, some of which are seasonal, results for certain interim periods may include unusually low loss experience, while results for other interim periods may include significant catastrophic losses. Consequently, the Company’s results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of results for the full year.

Net loss or income, preferred dividends, net loss or income available to common shareholders and diluted net loss or income per share for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 were as follows (in millions of U.S. dollars, except per share data):

 

     For the three
months ended
June 30,
2008
    % Change
2008 over
2007
   For the three
months ended
June 30,
2007
   For the six
months ended
June 30,
2008
   % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,
2007

Net (loss) income

   $ (26 )   NM    $ 105    $ 103    (62 )%   $ 274

Less: preferred dividends

     9     —        9      17    —         17
                                 

Net (loss) income available to common shareholders

   $ (35 )   NM    $ 96    $ 86    (67 )   $ 257

Diluted net (loss) income per share

   $ (0.64 )   NM    $ 1.66    $ 1.54    (65 )   $ 4.42

 

NM: not meaningful

Three-month result

The decline in net (loss) income, net (loss) income available to common shareholders and diluted net (loss) income per share for the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to 2007 resulted primarily from an increase in net realized and unrealized investment losses, which is now fully recognized in income following the adoption of SFAS 159 effective January 1, 2008, and was partially offset by the income tax benefit associated with the increase in net realized and unrealized investment losses and an increase in net investment income. These items are discussed in the Review of Net (Loss) Income.

Six-month result

The decline in net income, net income available to common shareholders and diluted net income per share for the first six months of 2008 compared to 2007 resulted primarily from an increase in net realized and unrealized investment losses, which is now recognized fully in income following the adoption of SFAS 159 effective January 1, 2008, a lower Non-life underwriting result, which was primarily due to higher mid-sized losses, and a non-recurring tax charge due to asset transfers between various subsidiaries and branches relating to the Company’s European reorganization on January 1, 2008, and was partially offset by the income tax benefit associated with the increase in net realized and unrealized investment losses, and higher net investment income and other income. These items are discussed in the Review of Net (Loss) Income.

Review of Net (Loss) Income

Management analyzes the Company’s net (loss) income in three parts: underwriting result, investment results and other components of net (loss) income. Underwriting result consists of net premiums earned and other income or loss less losses and loss expenses and life policy benefits, acquisition costs and other operating expenses. Net investment income includes interest and dividends, net of investment expenses, generated by the Company’s investment portfolio, as well as interest income generated on funds held, principal finance and insurance-linked securities transactions. Net realized and unrealized investment gains and losses includes the sales of the Company’s fixed income and equity investments and other net realized gains and losses, changes in net unrealized gains and losses in 2008 and other-than-temporary impairment charges in 2007. Interest in (losses) earnings of equity investments includes the Company’s strategic investments, including ChannelRe Holdings. Other components of net (loss) income include other income or loss, other operating expenses, interest expense, net foreign exchange gains and losses and income tax expense or benefit.

The components of net (loss) income for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 were as follows (in millions of U.S. dollars):

 

     For the three
months ended
June 30,
2008
    % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the three
months ended
June 30,
2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,
2008
    % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,
2007
 

Underwriting result:

            

Non-life

   $ 115     4 %   $ 111     $ 175     (21 )%   $ 220  

Life

     (11 )   3       (11 )     (22 )   (44 )     (15 )

Investment result:

            

Net investment income

     145     11       131       282     13       250  

 

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Table of Contents
     For the three
months ended
June 30,
2008
    % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the three
months ended
June 30,
2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,
2008
    % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,
2007
 

Net realized and unrealized investment losses

     (296 )   452       (54 )     (271 )   413       (53 )

Interest in (losses) earnings of equity investments

     (2 )   NM       3       (1 )   NM       6  

Corporate and Other:

            

Technical result

     2     170       1       4     263       1  

Other income (loss)

     3     NM       (11 )     3     NM       (12 )

Other operating expenses

     (22 )   10       (20 )     (48 )   19       (40 )

Interest expense

     (15 )   11       (13 )     (27 )   (1 )     (27 )

Net foreign exchange gains (losses)

     2     NM       (9 )     (3 )   (76 )     (13 )

Income tax benefit (expense)

     53     NM       (23 )     11     NM       (43 )
                                    

Net (loss) income

   $ (26 )   (125 )   $ 105     $ 103     (62 )   $ 274  

 

NM: not meaningful

Underwriting result is a key measurement that the Company uses to manage and evaluate its Non-life and Life segments, as it is a primary measure of underlying profitability for the Company’s core reinsurance operations, separate from the investment results. The Company believes that in order to enhance the understanding of its profitability, it is useful for investors to evaluate the components of net income separately and in the aggregate. Underwriting result should not be considered a substitute for net income and does not reflect the overall profitability of the business, which is also impacted by investment results and other items.

Three-month result

The underwriting result for the Non-life segment increased by $4 million, from $111 million in the three months ended June 30, 2007 to $115 million in 2008. The increase was principally attributable to:

 

   

an increase of $23 million in net favorable development on prior accident years, from $107 million in the three months ended June 30, 2007 to $130 million in 2008. The components of the net favorable loss development on prior accident year losses are described in more detail in the discussion of individual sub-segments in the section Results by Segment; and

 

   

an increase of $12 million in net favorable prior quarter development; partially offset by

 

   

a decrease of approximately $20 million resulting from a higher frequency of mid-sized losses and normal fluctuations in profitability between periods generally, given the softening market conditions, partially offset by the increase in the book of business and exposure; and

 

   

an increase in other operating expenses of $11 million.

Underwriting result for the Life segment remained flat in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the three months ended June 30, 2007. This was due to an increase of $2 million in net favorable development on prior accident years in 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 and an increase in normal fluctuations in profitability between periods which were partially offset by an increase in other operating expenses of $4 million.

The Company reported net investment income of $145 million in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to $131 million in 2007. The 11% increase in net investment income is primarily attributable to the increase in the asset base resulting from the investment of the Company’s significant cash flows from operations and from higher reinvestment rates on fixed maturity bonds since June 30, 2007. Higher average foreign exchange rates also contributed 4% of the increase as a result of the weakening of the U.S. dollar, on average, in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007.

Net realized and unrealized investment losses increased by $242 million, from a $54 million loss in the three months ended June 30, 2007, to a $296 million loss in the same period of 2008. The increase in net realized and unrealized investment losses was mainly due to increases in U.S. and European interest rates, and reflects the Company’s adoption of SFAS 159, which was effective January 1, 2008. See the discussion in Net Realized and Unrealized Investment Losses below. Prior to the adoption of SFAS 159, unrealized gains and losses, net of taxes, on available for sale securities were recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Following the adoption of SFAS 159, the Company’s available for sale securities have been reclassified as trading securities and all changes in pre-tax unrealized gains and losses are recorded in net realized and unrealized investment losses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Net realized and unrealized investment losses of $296 million in the three months ended June 30, 2008 were primarily due to the change in net unrealized losses on fixed maturities of $303 million and net realized losses on equities of $21 million, partially offset by net realized gains on fixed maturities of $18 million and the change in net unrealized gains on equities of $15 million.

 

26


Table of Contents

Interest in the results of equity investments decreased from income of $3 million in the three months ended June 30, 2007 to a loss of $2 million in the same period of 2008. See the discussion in Corporate and Other below for more details.

Technical result and other income (loss) in Corporate and Other are from principal finance transactions and insurance-linked securities. The increase in other income of $14 million, from other loss of $11 million in 2007 to other income of $3 million for the three months ended June 30, 2008 was primarily due to write-downs on four separate and unrelated transactions in the principal finance line in the 2007 period.

Other operating expenses in Corporate and Other increased by $2 million from $20 million during the three months ended June 30, 2007 to $22 million in corresponding period of 2008. The increase was primarily due to higher personnel costs partially offset by a decrease in consulting and professional fees.

Interest expense increased by $2 million in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 mainly due to a $3 million make-whole payment related to the early retirement of the Company’s $220 million bank loan.

Net foreign exchange gains (losses) improved from a loss of $9 million in the three months ended June 30, 2007 to a gain of $2 million in the three months ended June 30, 2008. The largest component of the net foreign exchange gains during the three months ended June 30, 2008 was the impact of forward points received, reflecting the interest rate differential between currencies bought and sold against the U.S. dollar and Euro. The Company hedges a significant portion of its currency risk exposure as discussed in the Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk in Item 3 of this report.

Income tax benefit was $53 million for the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to income tax expense of $23 million for the prior year period. The increase in the income tax benefit was primarily due to the benefit associated with the net realized and unrealized losses on investments. The increase was also due to the geographic (or tax jurisdiction) distribution of the net realized and unrealized losses on investments, with the Company’s taxable entities generating relatively higher net realized and unrealized losses on investments.

Six-month result

The underwriting result for the Non-life segment decreased by $45 million, from $220 million in the six months ended June 30, 2007 to $175 million in the same period of 2008. The decrease was principally attributable to:

 

   

a decrease of approximately $96 million resulting from a higher frequency of mid-sized losses and normal fluctuations in profitability between periods generally, given the softening market conditions, partially offset by an increase in net earned premiums resulting from an increase in the book of business and exposure; and

 

   

an increase in other operating expenses of $16 million, mainly due to increased personnel costs and withholding taxes; partially offset by

 

   

an increase of $18 million in net favorable development on prior accident years, from $229 million in the six months ended June 30, 2007 to $247 million in the same period of 2008. The components of the net favorable loss development on prior accident year losses are described in more detail in the discussion of individual sub-segments in the next section; and

 

   

a decrease in the level of large catastrophic losses of $49 million, net of reinstatement premiums, relating to European Windstorm Kyrill in 2007.

Underwriting result for the Life segment decreased from a loss of $15 million in the six months ended June 30, 2007 to a loss of $22 million in the corresponding six months of 2008 due to an increase of $10 million in net adverse prior year reserve development between 2007 and 2008 and higher operating expenses, partially offset by an increase in net premiums earned primarily due to the growth in the mortality line.

The Company reported net investment income of $282 million in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to $250 million in the same period of 2007. The 13% increase in net investment income is primarily attributable to the increase in the asset base resulting from the investment of the Company’s significant cash flows from operations and from higher reinvestment rates on fixed maturity bonds since June 30, 2007. Higher average foreign exchange rates also contributed 4% of the increase as a result of the weakening of the U.S. dollar, on average, in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007.

 

27


Table of Contents

Net realized and unrealized investment losses increased by $218 million, from a $53 million loss in the first six months of 2007, to a $271 million loss in the same period of 2008 for the reasons described in the three-month result above. Net realized and unrealized investment losses of $271 million in the six months ended June 30, 2008 were primarily due to the change in net unrealized losses on fixed maturities and equities of $303 million and net realized losses on equities of $47 million, partially offset by net realized gains of $63 million on fixed maturities. See Net Realized and Unrealized Investment Losses below for more details on net realized and unrealized loss activity.

Interest in the results of equity investments decreased from income of $6 million in the first six months of 2007 to a loss of $1 million in the corresponding six months of 2008. See the discussion in Corporate and Other below for more details.

The increase of $3 million in the Corporate and Other technical result for the first six months of 2008 compared to 2007 resulted primarily from the insurance-linked securities line, which had a technical result of $3 million in the six months ended June 30, 2008, compared to break even in the same period in 2007. Other income (loss) increased from a loss of $12 million in the six months ended June 30, 2007 to income of $3 million in the same period of 2008. The 2007 period reflected write-downs on four separate and unrelated transactions in the principal finance line and adverse weather conditions.

Other operating expenses in Corporate and Other increased by $8 million from $40 million during the six months ended June 30, 2007 to $48 million in the first six months of 2008. The increase was primarily due to an increase in personnel costs, including stock-based compensation expense related to annual awards granted to employees eligible for retirement, which are fully expensed on the grant date under SFAS 123(R) “Share-Based Payment”.

Interest expense of $27 million in the six months ended June 30, 2008 was comparable to the same period in 2007. The make-whole payment of $3 million incurred in 2008 related to the early retirement of the Company’s $220 million bank loan was offset by a lower interest expense on the Company’s $400 million floating-rate long-term debt.

Net foreign exchange losses decreased by $10 million for the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period of 2007 as a result of lower forward points paid, reflecting the interest rate differential between currencies bought and sold against the U.S. dollar and euro. Also included in the net foreign exchange line was the impact of the currency movements on unhedged securities against the functional currencies of the Company’s subsidiaries or branches.

Income tax benefit was $11 million in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to an expense of $43 million in the prior year period. The income tax benefit of $11 million for the six months ended June 30, 2008 was primarily due to the tax benefit associated with the net realized and unrealized investment losses as described in the three-month result above. For the first six months of 2008, this benefit is partially offset by a non-recurring tax charge of approximately $46 million resulting from asset transfers between various subsidiaries and branches relating to the Company’s European reorganization on January 1, 2008.

Results by Segment

The Company monitors the performance of its operations in three segments, Non-life, Life and Corporate & Other. The Non-life segment is further divided into four sub-segments: U.S., Global (Non-U.S.) Property and Casualty (Global (Non-U.S.) P&C), Global (Non-U.S.) Specialty, and Catastrophe. Segments and sub-segments represent markets that are reasonably homogeneous in terms of geography, client types, buying patterns, underlying risk patterns and approach to risk management. See Note 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company’s 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information concerning the Company’s segments and sub-segments.

As a result of organizational changes, during the fourth quarter of 2007, the Company redefined its financial reporting segments. The comparative segment data that was previously presented in the Company’s Form 10-Q for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2007 has been recast to conform to the current presentation.

Segment results are shown net of intercompany transactions. Business reported in the Global (Non-U.S.) P&C and Global (Non-U.S) Specialty sub-segments and the Life segment is, to a significant extent, denominated in foreign currencies and is reported in U.S. dollars at the average foreign exchange rates for each period. The U.S. dollar has fluctuated against the euro and other currencies in the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007, and this should be considered when making period-to-period comparisons.

Non-life Segment

U.S.

The U.S. sub-segment includes the U.S. casualty line, which represented approximately 47% of net premiums written in this sub-segment in the second quarter and first six months of 2008, respectively. This line typically tends to have a higher loss ratio and lower technical result due to the long-tail nature of the risks involved. Casualty treaties typically provide for investment income on premiums invested over a longer period as losses are typically paid later than for other lines. Investment income, however, is not considered in the calculation of technical result.

 

28


Table of Contents

The following table provides the components of the technical result and the corresponding ratios for this sub-segment for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 (in millions of U.S. dollars):

 

     For the three
months ended
June 30,
2008
    % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the three
months ended
June 30,
2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,
2008
    % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,
2007
 

Gross premiums written

   $ 254     11 %   $ 229     $ 586     12 %   $ 524  

Net premiums written

     246     7       229       578     10       523  

Net premiums earned

   $ 285     18     $ 241     $ 551     19     $ 462  

Losses and loss expenses

     (227 )   51       (150 )     (398 )   39       (287 )

Acquisition costs

     (64 )   14       (56 )     (131 )   15       (114 )
                                    

Technical result(1)

   $ (6 )   NM     $ 35     $ 22     (63 )   $ 61  

Loss ratio(2)

     79.6 %       62.1 %     72.2 %       62.1 %

Acquisition ratio(3)

     22.7         23.5       23.7         24.6  
                                    

Technical ratio(4)

     102.3 %       85.6 %     95.9 %       86.7 %

 

NM: not meaningful

(1) Technical result is defined as net premiums earned less losses and loss expenses and acquisition costs.
(2) Loss ratio is obtained by dividing losses and loss expenses by net premiums earned.
(3) Acquisition ratio is obtained by dividing acquisition costs by net premiums earned.
(4) Technical ratio is defined as the sum of the loss ratio and the acquisition ratio.

Premiums

The U.S. sub-segment represented 26% and 24% of total net premiums written in the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008, respectively.

Three-month result

Gross and net premiums written and net premiums earned increased by 11%, 7% and 18%, respectively, in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007. The increases resulted primarily from the growth in the Company’s agriculture line of business, which benefited from increased opportunities, pricing and demand. Net premiums written also increased in the casualty line, but were more than offset by decreases in all other lines of business due to higher cedant retentions. The increase in net premiums earned of 18% during the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 was greater than the increase in net premiums written of 7% due to a shift in the mix of business to the agriculture line, which is generally written on a losses occurring basis, and due to the decreases in net premiums written in most lines of business, except agriculture and casualty.

Six-month result

Gross and net premiums written and net premiums earned increased by 12%, 10% and 19%, respectively, in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007. The increases resulted primarily from the growth in the Company’s agriculture line of business. Due to the increased opportunities in the agriculture line, the Company bound approximately $285 million of annual net premiums, and recorded $133 million in net premiums written in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to $50 million in the same period of 2007. The growth in premiums written in the agriculture line of business increases the Company’s exposure to commodity price risk for crops, drought and other agricultural risks. Net premiums written also increased in the casualty lines, but were more than offset by decreases in all other lines of business due to higher cedant retentions. Net premiums written were also impacted by $9 million greater downward premium adjustments received from cedants in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007. The increase in net premiums earned of 19% during the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 was greater than the increase in net premiums written of 10% due to the change in the mix of business towards agriculture, which is written on a losses occurring basis, a decrease in business written in most lines, except agriculture and casualty, and an increase in downward net premiums written adjustments, with a lesser impact on net premiums earned. Notwithstanding the increased competition prevailing in certain lines and markets of this sub-segment and the increased risk retention by cedants, the Company was able to write business that met its profitability objectives.

 

29


Table of Contents

Losses and loss expenses and loss ratio

Three-month result

The losses and loss expenses and loss ratio reported in the three months ended June 30, 2008 reflected a) no large catastrophic losses; b) a higher level of mid-sized losses mainly in the agriculture, property and structured risk lines of business; c) net favorable loss development on prior accident years of $22 million, or 7.9 points on the loss ratio of this sub-segment; and d) an increase in the book of business and exposure, as evidenced by the increase in net premiums earned. The net favorable loss development of $22 million included net favorable development for prior accident years in all lines of business, with the exception of the motor line, which experienced net adverse loss development for prior accident years of $3 million. Loss information provided by cedants during the three months ended June 30, 2008 for prior accident years included no individually significant losses or reductions of losses but a series of attritional losses or reductions. Based on the Company’s assessment of this loss information, the Company decreased its expected ultimate loss ratios for all lines of business (increased for motor line), which had the net effect of decreasing (increasing for motor line) prior year loss estimates.

The 2007 losses and loss expenses and loss ratio reflected a) no large catastrophic losses; b) net favorable loss development on prior accident years of $18 million, or 7.4 points on the loss ratio; and c) a decrease in the book of business. The net favorable loss development of $18 million included net favorable development in all lines of business except multiline, which experienced net adverse development of $3 million.

The increase of $77 million in losses and loss expenses for the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period of 2007 included:

 

   

an increase in losses and loss expenses of approximately $81 million resulting from a combination of a higher level of mid-sized losses in the agriculture, property and structured risk lines of business, an increase in the book of business and exposure and normal fluctuations in profitability between periods; and was partially offset by

 

   

an increase of $4 million in net favorable prior year development.

Six-month result

The losses and loss expenses and loss ratio reported in the six months ended June 30, 2008 reflected a) no large catastrophic losses; b) a higher level of mid-sized losses mainly in the agriculture, property and structured risk lines of business; c) net favorable loss development on prior accident years of $38 million, or 6.9 points on the loss ratio of this sub-segment; and d) an increase in the book of business and exposure, as evidenced by the increase in net premiums earned. The net favorable loss development of $38 million included net favorable development for prior accident years in all lines of business, with the exception of the motor line, which experienced net adverse loss development for prior accident years of $4 million. Loss information provided by cedants during the six months ended June 30, 2008 for prior accident years included no individually significant losses or reductions of losses but a series of attritional losses or reductions. Based on the Company’s assessment of this loss information, the Company decreased its expected ultimate loss ratios for all lines of business (increased for motor line), which had the net effect of decreasing (increasing for motor line) prior year loss estimates.

The 2007 losses and loss expenses and loss ratio reflected a) no large catastrophic losses; b) net favorable loss development on prior accident years of $30 million, or 6.6 points on the loss ratio; and c) a decrease in the book of business. The net favorable loss development of $30 million included net favorable development in all lines of business except the property line, which had a net adverse development of $3 million.

The increase of $111 million in losses and loss expenses for the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period of 2007 included:

 

   

an increase in losses and loss expenses of approximately $119 million resulting from a combination of a higher level of mid-sized losses, an increase in the book of business and exposure and normal fluctuations in profitability between periods; and was partially offset by

 

   

an increase of $8 million in net favorable prior year development.

Acquisition costs and acquisition ratio

Three-month result and six-month result

The acquisition costs increased in the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same periods in 2007 as a result of higher net premiums earned. The slight decrease in acquisition ratio in the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to 2007 was a result of the shift in the mix of business to the agriculture line and is partially offset by profit commission adjustments reported by cedants.

 

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Table of Contents

Technical result and technical ratio

Three-month result

The decrease of $41 million in the technical result and the corresponding increase in technical ratio in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period of 2007 was primarily attributable to a decrease of $45 million resulting from a higher level of mid-sized losses and normal fluctuations in profitability and net premiums earned between periods, partially offset by an increase in net favorable prior year development of $4 million.

Six-month result

The decrease of $39 million in the technical result and corresponding increase in technical ratio in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period of 2007 was primarily attributable to a decrease of $47 million resulting from a higher level of mid-sized losses and normal fluctuations in profitability and net premiums earned between periods, partially offset by an increase in net favorable prior year development of $8 million.

Global (Non-U.S.) P&C

The Global (Non-U.S.) P&C sub-segment is comprised of short-tail business, in the form of property and proportional motor business, that represented 88% and 79% of net premiums written for this sub-segment in the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008, respectively, and long-tail business, in the form of casualty and non-proportional motor business, that represented the balance of this sub-segment.

The following table provides the components of the technical result and the corresponding ratios for this sub-segment for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 (in millions of U.S. dollars):

 

     For the three
months ended
June 30,
2008
    % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the three
months ended
June 30,
2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,
2008
    % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,
2007
 

Gross premiums written

   $ 134     4 %   $ 129     $ 509     10 %   $ 462  

Net premiums written

     132     4       127       505     10       459  

Net premiums earned

   $ 186     8     $ 173     $ 387     11     $ 349  

Losses and loss expenses

     (87 )   (33 )     (131 )     (234 )   (6 )     (249 )

Acquisition costs

     (48 )   8       (44 )     (100 )   11       (90 )
                                    

Technical result

   $ 51     NM     $ (2 )   $ 53     389     $ 10  

Loss ratio

     46.7 %       75.6 %     60.6 %       71.2 %

Acquisition ratio

     25.6         25.6       25.7         25.7  
                                    

Technical ratio

     72.3 %       101.2 %     86.3 %       96.9 %

 

NM: not meaningful

Premiums

The Global (Non-U.S.) P&C sub-segment represented 14% and 21% of total net premiums written for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008, respectively.

Three-month result

The increase in gross and net premiums written and net premiums earned in the three months ended June 30, 2008 resulted from the casualty and motor lines of business, while the property line decreased. The weakening of the U.S. dollar, on average, during the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 contributed to the increase in premiums in this sub-segment, as premiums denominated in currencies that have appreciated against the U.S. dollar were converted into U.S. dollars at higher average exchange rates. The foreign exchange fluctuations contributed 12% to the increase in gross and net premiums written and net

 

31


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premiums earned and was partially offset by the impact of increased competition, declines in pricing and increased risk retention by cedants reducing gross and net premiums written and net premiums earned. Net premiums written and net premiums earned were also impacted by greater downward premium adjustments received from cedants in the second quarter of 2008.

Six-month result

The increase in gross and net premiums written and net premiums earned in the first six months of 2008 resulted from all lines of business and was primarily due to the acquisition of the renewal rights of the international reinsurance business of the French Monceau Group in 2007, partially offset by the impact of increased cedant retentions and greater downward premium adjustments of $39 million reported by cedants in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007. The weakening of the U.S. dollar, on average, during the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 contributed 10% to the increase in gross premiums written and 11% to net premiums written and net premiums earned. Notwithstanding the increased competition, declines in pricing and the increased risk retention by cedants prevailing in the lines of business and markets of this sub-segment, the Company was able to write business that met its profitability objectives.

Losses and loss expenses and loss ratio

Three-month result

The losses and loss expenses and loss ratio reported in the three months ended June 30, 2008 reflected a) no large catastrophic losses; b) net favorable loss development on prior accident years of $52 million, or 27.9 points on the loss ratio; c) net favorable loss development on the prior quarter of $5 million, or 2.7 points on the loss ratio; and d) an increase in the book of business and exposure as evidenced by the increase in net premiums earned. The net favorable loss development of $52 million included net favorable development in all lines of business, but was most pronounced in the property line, and was primarily due to favorable loss emergence, as losses reported by cedants during the three months ended June 30, 2008 for prior accident years were lower than the Company expected. Loss information provided by cedants in the three months ended June 30, 2008 for prior accident years included no individually significant losses or reductions of losses but a series of attritional losses or reductions. Based on the Company’s assessment of this loss information, the Company decreased its expected ultimate loss ratios for all lines, which had the net effect of decreasing prior year loss estimates.

The losses and loss expenses and loss ratio reported in the three months ended June 30, 2007 reflected a) no large catastrophic losses; b) a higher than usual level of mid-sized losses; c) net favorable loss development on prior accident years of $20 million, or 11.3 points on the loss ratio; and d) a decrease in the book of business and exposure. The net favorable loss development of $20 million included net favorable development in all lines.

The decrease of $44 million in losses and loss expenses for the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 included:

 

   

an increase of $32 million in net favorable prior year development;

 

   

an increase of $5 million in net favorable prior quarter development; and

 

   

a decrease in losses and loss expenses of approximately $7 million resulting from a lower level of mid-sized losses in 2008, partially offset by the increase in the book of business and exposure and normal fluctuations in profitability between periods.

Six-month result

The losses and loss expenses and loss ratio reported in the six months ended June 30, 2008 reflected a) no large catastrophic losses; b) a higher level of mid-sized losses mainly in the property line of business; c) net favorable loss development on prior accident years of $110 million, or 28.3 points on the loss ratio; and d) an increase in the book of business and exposure as evidenced by the increase in net premiums earned. The net favorable loss development of $110 million included net favorable development in all lines of business, but was most pronounced in the property line, and was primarily due to favorable loss emergence, as losses reported by cedants during the six months ended June 30, 2008 for prior accident years were lower than the Company expected. Loss information provided by cedants in the six months ended June 30, 2008 for prior accident years included no individually significant losses or reductions of losses but a series of attritional losses or reductions. Based on the Company’s assessment of this loss information, the Company decreased its expected ultimate loss ratios for all lines, which had the net effect of decreasing prior year loss estimates.

The losses and loss expenses and loss ratio reported in the six months ended June 30, 2007 reflected a) losses related to European Windstorm Kyrill of $13 million, or 3.6 points on the loss ratio of this sub-segment; b) a higher than usual level of mid-sized losses; c) net favorable loss development on prior accident years of $60 million, or 17.0 points on the loss ratio; and d) a decrease in the book of business and exposure. The net favorable loss development of $60 million included net favorable development in all lines.

 

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The decrease of $15 million in losses and loss expenses for the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 included:

 

   

an increase of $50 million in net favorable prior year development; and

 

   

a decrease of $13 million in large catastrophic losses; partially offset by

 

   

an increase in losses and loss expenses of approximately $48 million resulting from a combination of an increase in the book of business, a higher level of mid-sized losses, modestly lower profitability on the business written in 2008 and normal fluctuations in profitability between periods.

Acquisition costs and acquisition ratio

Three-month result and six-month result

The acquisition costs increased in the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to 2007 as a result of higher net premiums earned. The acquisition ratio remained flat reflecting a relatively consistent distribution of net premiums earned between the lines of business in this sub-segment in the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to 2007.

Technical result and technical ratio

Three-month result

The increase of $53 million in technical result and corresponding decrease in technical ratio for the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 was primarily explained by an increase of $32 million in net favorable prior year development, an increase of $16 million resulting from lower mid-sized losses and normal fluctuations in profitability between periods and an increase of $5 million in net favorable prior quarter development.

Six-month result

The increase of $43 million in technical result and corresponding decrease in technical ratio for the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 was primarily explained by an increase of $50 million in net favorable prior year development, and a decrease of $13 million in large catastrophic losses, partially offset by a decrease of $20 million resulting from a higher level of mid-sized losses and normal fluctuations in profitability between periods, after considering the growth in net earned premiums in 2008.

Global (Non-U.S.) Specialty

The Global (Non-U.S.) Specialty sub-segment is primarily comprised of lines of business that are considered to be either short or medium-tail. The short-tail lines consist of agriculture, energy and specialty property and accounted for 19% and 22% of the net premiums written in the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 in this sub-segment, respectively. Aviation/space, credit/surety, engineering and marine are considered by the Company to have a medium-tail and represented 68% and 62% of the net premiums written, while specialty casualty is considered to be long-tail and represented 13% and 16% of the net premiums written in this sub-segment in the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008, respectively.

The following table provides the components of the technical result and the corresponding ratios for this sub-segment for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 (in millions of U.S. dollars):

 

     For the three
months ended
June 30,
2008
    % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the three
months ended
June 30,
2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,
2008
    % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,
2007
 

Gross premiums written

   $ 291     6 %   $ 275     $ 645     11 %   $ 580  

Net premiums written

     291     6       275       624     12       560  

Net premiums earned

   $ 272     2     $ 265     $ 490     1     $ 486  

Losses and loss expenses

     (144 )   31       (110 )     (291 )   39       (209 )

Acquisition costs

     (75 )   8       (70 )     (129 )   2       (127 )
                                    

Technical result

   $ 53     (38 )   $ 85     $ 70     (53 )   $ 150  

Loss ratio

     52.8 %       41.4 %     59.5 %       43.1 %

Acquisition ratio

     27.7         26.2       26.3         26.0  
                                    

Technical ratio

     80.5 %       67.6 %     85.8 %       69.1 %

 

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Table of Contents

Premiums

The Global (Non-U.S.) Specialty sub-segment represented 30% and 26% of total net premiums written in the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008, respectively.

Three-month result

Gross and net premiums written increased by 6% during the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007. The increase resulted from all lines of business, except for aviation/space and specialty casualty, which were flat. The increase was primarily due to the weakening of the U.S. dollar, on average, in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period of 2007, as premiums denominated in currencies that have appreciated against the U.S. dollar were converted into U.S dollars at higher average exchange rates. The foreign exchange fluctuations contributed 8% to the increase in gross and net premiums written and 9% to net premiums earned and were partially offset by the impact of increased competition, declines in pricing and increased retentions by cedants which reduced gross and net premiums written and net premiums earned.

Six-month result

Gross and net premiums written increased by 11% and 12%, respectively, in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007. The increase resulted from all lines of business except for the aviation/space line. The increase of 12% in net premiums written for the six months ended June 30, 2008 is higher than the increase of 1% in net premiums earned as a result of refining the application of the Company’s earnings pattern methodology in certain lines of business. The weakening of the U.S. dollar, on average, in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period of 2007 also contributed significantly to the increase in premiums. The foreign exchange fluctuations contributed 8% to the increase in gross and net premiums written and net premiums earned. Notwithstanding the increased competition, declines in pricing and the increased risk retention by cedants prevailing in certain lines and markets of this sub-segment, the Company was able to write business that met its profitability objectives.

Losses and loss expenses and loss ratio

Three-month result

The losses and loss expenses and loss ratio reported in the three months ended June 30, 2008 for this sub-segment reflected a) no large catastrophic losses; b) net favorable loss development on prior accident years of $32 million, or 11.7 points on the loss ratio; and c) net favorable loss development on the prior quarter of $9 million, or 3.5 points on the loss ratio. The net favorable development of $32 million reported in the three months ended June 30, 2008 included net favorable loss development for prior accident years in all lines of business with the exception of the engineering and energy lines of business, which included net adverse loss development for prior accident years of $3 million. Loss information provided by cedants in the three months ended June 30, 2008 for prior accident years was lower than the Company expected (higher for the engineering and energy lines) and included no individually significant losses or reductions but a series of attritional losses or reductions. Based on the Company’s assessment of this loss information, the Company decreased its expected ultimate loss ratios for all lines of business with the exception of the engineering and energy lines, which had the net effect of decreasing (increasing for the engineering and energy lines) the level of prior year loss estimates for this sub-segment.

The losses and loss expenses and loss ratio reported in the three months ended June 30, 2007 for this sub-segment reflected a) net favorable loss development on prior accident years of $57 million, or 21.4 points on the loss ratio; and b) net favorable loss development on the prior quarter of $6 million, or 2.3 points on the loss ratio. The net favorable loss development of $57 million reported in the three months ended June 30, 2007 included net favorable development in all lines of business with the exception of the energy line.

The increase of $34 million in losses and loss expenses for the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 included:

 

   

a decrease of $25 million in net favorable prior year development; and

 

   

an increase in losses and loss expenses of approximately $12 million resulting from a combination of modestly lower profitability on the business written in 2008 and normal fluctuations in profitability between periods; and was partially offset by

 

34


Table of Contents
   

an increase of $3 million in net favorable prior quarter development.

Six-month result

The losses and loss expenses and loss ratio reported in the six months ended June 30, 2008 for this sub-segment reflected a) no large catastrophic losses; b) a higher level of mid-sized losses and c) net favorable loss development on prior accident years in the amount of $65 million, or 13.2 points on the loss ratio. The net favorable development of $65 million reported in the six months ended June 30, 2008 included net favorable loss development for prior accident years in all lines of business with the exception of the energy line, which included net adverse loss development for prior accident years of $11 million. Loss information provided by cedants in the six months ended June 30, 2008 for prior accident years was lower than the Company expected (higher for the energy line) and included no individually significant losses or reductions but a series of attritional losses or reductions. Based on the Company’s assessment of this loss information, the Company decreased its expected ultimate loss ratios for all lines of business with the exception of the energy line, which had the net effect of decreasing (increasing for the energy line) the level of prior year loss estimates for this sub-segment.

The losses and loss expenses and loss ratio reported in the six months ended June 30, 2007 for this sub-segment reflected a) losses related to European windstorm Kyrill of $7 million, or 1.5 points on the loss ratio; and b) net favorable loss development on prior accident years of $116 million, or 23.8 points on the loss ratio. The net favorable loss development of $116 million reported in the six months ended June 30, 2007 included net favorable development in all lines of business.

The increase of $82 million in losses and loss expenses for the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 included:

 

   

a decrease of $51 million in net favorable prior year development; and

 

   

an increase in losses and loss expenses of approximately $38 million resulting from a combination of a higher level of mid-sized losses, modestly lower profitability on the business written in 2008 and normal fluctuations in profitability between periods; and was partially offset by

 

   

a decrease of $7 million in large catastrophic losses.

Acquisition costs and acquisition ratio

Three-month result and six-month result

The increase in acquisition costs in the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to 2007 is primarily due to the increase in the Company’s book of business and exposure, as evidenced by the increase in net premiums earned. The increase in the acquisition ratio in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to 2007 was primarily due to profit commission adjustments recorded in the credit/surety line of business. The acquisition ratio in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 was flat.

Technical result and technical ratio

Three-month result

The decrease of $32 million in the technical result and corresponding increase in the technical ratio for the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 was explained by a decrease of $25 million in net favorable prior year development and a decrease of $10 million resulting from modestly lower profitability on business written in 2008 and normal fluctuations in profitability between periods, partially offset by an increase of $3 million in net favorable prior quarter development.

Six-month result

The decrease of $80 million in the technical result and corresponding increase in the technical ratio for the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 was explained by a decrease of $51 million in net favorable prior year development and a decrease of $36 million resulting from a higher level of mid-sized losses, modestly lower profitability on business written in 2008 and normal fluctuations in profitability between periods, partially offset by a decrease of $7 million in large catastrophic losses.

Catastrophe

The Catastrophe sub-segment writes business predominantly on non-proportional basis and is exposed to volatility resulting from catastrophic losses. Thus, profitability in any one year is not necessarily predictive of future profitability.

 

35


Table of Contents

The following table provides the components of the technical result and the corresponding ratios for this sub-segment for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 (in millions of U.S. dollars):

 

     For the three
months ended
June 30,
2008
    % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the three
months ended
June 30,
2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,
2008
    % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,
2007
 

Gross premiums written

   $ 145     10 %   $ 131     $ 343     —   %   $ 343  

Net premiums written

     145     10       132       343     —         343  

Net premiums earned

   $ 65     (1 )   $ 66     $ 142     (11 )   $ 160  

Losses and loss expenses

     20     NM       (16 )     18     NM       (45 )

Acquisition costs

     (7 )   1       (7 )     (13 )   (16 )     (16 )
                                    

Technical result

   $ 78     82     $ 43     $ 147     49     $ 99  

Loss ratio

     (30.7 )%       24.7 %     (12.9 )%       28.2 %

Acquisition ratio

     10.2         10.0       9.6         10.2  
                                    

Technical ratio

     (20.5 )%       34.7 %     (3.3 )%       38.4 %

 

NM: not meaningful

Premiums

The Catastrophe sub-segment represented 15% and 14% of total net premiums written in the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008, respectively.

Three-month result

Gross and net premiums written increased by 10% and net premiums earned decreased by 1% in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period of 2007. The increase in net premiums written in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to 2007 was primarily due to foreign exchange fluctuations and due to timing differences in the recognition of premiums between the first and second quarter, which offset on a year to date basis. The weakening of the U.S. dollar, on average, in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period of 2007 contributed to the increase in premiums in this sub-segment, as premiums denominated in currencies that have appreciated against the U.S. dollar were converted into U.S dollars at higher average exchange rates. Foreign exchange fluctuations increased gross and net premiums written by 3% and were partially offset by higher cedant retentions and increased competition. The decrease in net premiums earned in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to 2007 was impacted by the refinement of the application of the Company’s methodology related to its U.S. wind earnings pattern in 2007, partially offset by fluctuations in foreign exchange which increased net premiums earned by 8%.

Six-month result

Gross and net premiums written remained flat and net premiums earned decreased by 11% in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period of 2007. The weakening of the U.S. dollar, on average, in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period of 2007 increased gross and net premiums written by 5% and 6%, respectively, which was partially offset by a slow-down in the growth of this sub-segment as discussed in the three-month result. The comparison of net premiums earned between periods was also impacted by the refinement of the application of the Company’s methodology related to its U.S. wind earnings pattern in 2007.

Losses and loss expenses and loss ratio

Three-month result

The losses and loss expenses and loss ratio reported in the three months ended June 30, 2008 for this sub-segment reflected a) no large catastrophic losses; b) net favorable loss development on prior accident years of $24 million, or 37.7 points on the loss ratio; and c) net favorable loss development on the prior quarter of $2 million, or 2.6 points on the loss ratio. The net favorable loss development of $24 million was primarily due to favorable loss emergence, as losses reported by cedants in the three months ended June 30, 2008 for prior accident years were lower than the Company expected. Based on the Company’s assessment of this loss information, the Company decreased its expected ultimate loss ratio, which had the effect of decreasing the level of prior year loss estimates.

 

36


Table of Contents

The losses and loss expenses and loss ratio reported in the three months ended June 30, 2007 for this sub-segment reflected a) no large catastrophic losses; b) net favorable loss development on prior accident years of $12 million, or 18.9 points on the loss ratio; and c) net adverse loss development on the prior quarter of $3 million, or 4.2 points on the loss ratio.

The decrease of $36 million in losses and loss expenses for the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 included:

 

   

a decrease in losses and loss expenses of approximately $20 million resulting from a low level of mid-sized loss activity in 2008;

 

   

an increase of $12 million in net favorable prior year development; and

 

   

an increase of $4 million in net favorable prior quarter development.

Six-month result

The losses and loss expenses and loss ratio reported in the six months ended June 30, 2008 for this sub-segment reflected a) no large catastrophic losses; b) net favorable loss development on prior accident years of $34 million, or 24.6 points on the loss ratio; and c) a low level of mid-sized loss activity in 2008. The net favorable loss development of $34 million was primarily due to favorable loss emergence, as losses reported by cedants in the six months ended June 30, 2008 for prior accident years were lower than the Company expected. Based on the Company’s assessment of this loss information, the Company decreased its expected ultimate loss ratio, which had the effect of decreasing the level of prior year loss estimates.

The losses and loss expenses and loss ratio reported in the six months ended June 30, 2007 for this sub-segment reflected a) losses related to European windstorm Kyrill of $31 million, or 20.0 points on the loss ratio; and b) net favorable loss development on prior accident years of $23 million, or 14.9 points on the loss ratio.

The decrease of $63 million in losses and loss expenses for the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 included:

 

   

a decrease of $31 million in large catastrophic losses;

 

   

a decrease in losses and loss expenses of approximately $21 million resulting from a low level of mid-sized loss activity in 2008; and

 

   

an increase of $11 million in net favorable prior year development.

Acquisition costs and acquisition ratio

Three-month result and six-month result

The acquisition costs and acquisition ratio remained flat in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to 2007, reflecting the stability in net premiums earned. The decrease in acquisition costs in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to 2007 resulted primarily from a reduction in the Company’s book of business and exposure, as evidenced by the decrease in net premiums earned. The decrease in the acquisition ratio in the six months ended June 30, 2008 was primarily due to higher acquisition costs in the first six months of 2007 resulting from profit commission adjustments.

Technical result and technical ratio

Three-month result

The increase of $35 million in the technical result and corresponding decrease in the technical ratio in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to 2007 was primarily explained by an increase of $18 million resulting from a low level of mid-sized loss activity in 2008, an increase of $12 million in net favorable prior year development and an increase of $5 million in net favorable prior quarter development.

Six-month result

The increase of $48 million in the technical result and corresponding decrease in the technical ratio in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to 2007 was primarily explained by a decrease of $29 million (net of $2 million of reinstatement premiums) in large catastrophic losses, an increase of $11 million in net favorable prior year development and an increase of $8 million resulting from a low level of mid-sized loss activity in 2008, which was partially offset by a smaller book of business and lower net premiums earned.

 

37


Table of Contents

Life Segment

The following table provides the components of the allocated underwriting result for this segment for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 (in millions of U.S. dollars):

 

     For the three
months ended
June 30,
2008
    % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the three
months ended
June 30,
2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,
2008
    % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,
2007
 

Gross premiums written

   $ 138     (4 )%   $ 144     $ 313     4 %   $ 300  

Net premiums written

     136     —         136       307     8       283  

Net premiums earned

   $ 146     2     $ 143     $ 291     7     $ 273  

Life policy benefits

     (111 )   (5 )     (117 )     (233 )   9       (213 )

Acquisition costs

     (34 )   16       (29 )     (59 )   (2 )     (60 )
                                    

Technical result

   $ 1     NM     $ (3 )   $ (1 )   NM     $ —    

Other operating expenses

     (12 )   53       (8 )     (21 )   39       (15 )

Net investment income

     18     16       15       33     24       26  
                                    

Allocated underwriting result(1)

   $ 7     52     $ 4     $ 11     1     $ 11  

 

NM: not meaningful

(1) Allocated underwriting result is defined as net premiums earned and allocated net investment income less life policy benefits, acquisition costs and other operating expenses.

Premiums

The Life segment represented 14% and 13% of total net premiums written in the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008, respectively.

Three-month result

Gross premiums written decreased by 4%, net premiums written remained flat and net premiums earned increased by 2% in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007. The weakening of the U.S. dollar, on average, in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period of 2007 contributed to the increase in premiums, as premiums denominated in currencies that have appreciated against the U.S. dollar were converted into U.S dollars at higher average exchange rates. The U.S. dollar weakened, on average, in the three months ended June 30, 2008 and foreign exchange fluctuations contributed an increase of 10% to gross and net premiums written, which was offset by the non-renewal of a large longevity treaty. In addition, while gross premiums written declined in the three months ended June 30, 2008, net premiums written remained flat compared to the same period of 2007 due to the purchase of additional reinsurance protection in the mortality line of business in 2007. Net premiums earned increased in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 primarily due to the impact of foreign exchange, which contributed 10% to the increase, and the purchase of additional reinsurance protection in 2007 and was partially offset by the non-renewal of a large longevity treaty.

Six-month result

The increases in gross and net premiums written and net premiums earned in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 was due to the impact of foreign exchange, which contributed 10% to the increases in gross and net premiums written and net premiums earned. The increase in the gross and net premiums written for the six months ended June 30, 2008 from the impact of foreign exchange was partially offset by the non-renewal of a large longevity treaty. The increase in net premiums earned for the six months ended June 30, 2008 also included $10 million in premiums reported by a cedant for a longevity treaty and was partially offset by the non-renewal of a large longevity treaty.

Life policy benefits

Three-month result

Life policy benefits decreased by $6 million in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007. The decrease was primarily attributable to the change in the mix of business as the mortality line, which generally carries a lower level of life policy benefits than the longevity line, increased its percentage of the Life segment’s net premiums earned, as a result of the non-renewal of a large longevity treaty. This decrease was partially offset by the impact of foreign exchange fluctuations, which contributed 8% to the increase in life policy benefits during the three months ended June 30, 2008. In addition, life policy benefits in the three

 

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months ended June 30, 2008 included net favorable prior year reserve development of less than $1 million compared to net adverse prior year reserve development of $2 million in the three months ended June 30, 2007. The net adverse development of $2 million in the three months ended June 30, 2007 included net adverse loss development in the longevity line of $8 million, partially offset by net favorable loss development in the mortality and health lines and was due to the receipt of additional reported loss information from cedants.

Six-month result

Life policy benefits increased by $20 million in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007. The increase was primarily attributable to a cedant that reported life policy benefits of $16 million for a longevity treaty and foreign exchange fluctuations which contributed 9% of the increase during the six months of 2008 and was partially offset by the change in the mix of business as a result of the non-renewal of a large longevity treaty, as described in the three month result. In addition, life policy benefits in the six months ended June 30, 2008 included net adverse prior year reserve development of $5 million compared to net favorable prior year reserve development of $5 million in the six months ended June 30, 2007. The net adverse development in the six months ended June 30, 2008 was primarily from the GMDB business, where the payout is linked to the performance of underlying capital market assets in France. The net favorable development of $5 million in the six months ended June 30, 2007 was due to the receipt of additional reported loss information from cedants and represented net favorable development of $16 million in the mortality line partially offset by net adverse development of $11 million in the longevity line.

Acquisition costs

Three-month result and six-month result

The increase in acquisition costs in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 was primarily attributable to profit commission adjustments in the mortality line in 2008. The decrease in acquisition costs in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 was mainly due to a decrease of $5 million in acquisition costs reported by a cedant for a longevity treaty in the first six months of 2008 compared to 2007, which was partially offset by increased profit commission adjustments in the mortality line in 2008.

Net investment income

Three-month result and six-month result

Net investment income for this segment increased by $3 million and $7 million for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2007 primarily as a result of higher invested assets.

Allocated underwriting result

Three-month result

The increase of $3 million in allocated underwriting result in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 was primarily explained by the increase in net investment income of $3 million and an increase of $4 million in normal fluctuations in profitability between periods, partially offset by higher operating expenses of $4 million.

Six-month result

The allocated underwriting result remained flat in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007. This was primarily explained by the increase in net investment income of $7 million, offset by higher operating expenses of $6 million, and a lower technical result of $1 million.

 

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Premium Distribution by Line of Business

The distribution of net premiums written by line of business for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 was as follows:

 

     For the three
months ended
June 30,

2008
    For the three
months ended
June 30,

2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,

2008
    For the six
months ended
June 30,

2007
 

Non-life

        

Property and casualty

        

Casualty

   14 %   13 %   15 %   15 %

Property

   11     15     17     18  

Motor

   4     4     6     5  

Multiline and other

   2     2     2     4  

Specialty

        

Agriculture

   10     6     7     3  

Aviation/Space

   5     6     3     4  

Catastrophe

   15     15     14     16  

Credit/Surety

   7     7     6     6  

Engineering

   6     6     5     4  

Energy

   3     2     2     2  

Marine

   3     3     3     3  

Specialty casualty

   4     4     4     4  

Specialty property

   2     2     3     3  

Life

   14     15     13     13  
                        

Total

   100 %   100 %   100 %   100 %

There were modest shifts in the distribution of net premiums written by line and segment between the 2008 and 2007 periods, which reflected the Company’s response to existing market conditions. The distribution of net premiums written may also be affected by the timing of renewals of treaties, a shift in treaty structure and premium adjustments by cedants. In addition, foreign exchange fluctuations affected the comparison for all lines.

 

   

Property: non-renewals of business, increased cedant retentions and an increase in negative premium adjustments resulted in the decline of premiums in the three months ended June 30, 2008, compared to the same period of 2007.

 

   

Multiline and other: the decrease in premiums resulted principally from timing differences in the recognition of premiums, and negative premium adjustments reported by cedants in the first six months of 2008 compared to positive premium adjustments reported in the same period of 2007.

 

   

Agriculture: the increase in premiums resulted principally from the growth in the Company’s agriculture line of business in its U.S. sub-segment, which benefited from increased opportunities, pricing and demand.

 

   

Catastrophe: the decrease in net premiums written was primarily due to prevailing market conditions, increased competition, declines in pricing and increased risk retention by cedants.

Premium Distribution by Treaty Type

The Company typically writes business on either a proportional or non-proportional basis. On proportional business, the Company shares proportionally in both the premiums and losses of the cedant. On non-proportional business, the Company is typically exposed to loss events in excess of a predetermined dollar amount or loss ratio. In both proportional and non-proportional business, the Company typically reinsures a large group of primary insurance contracts written by the ceding company. In addition, the Company writes a small percentage of its business on a facultative basis. Facultative arrangements are generally specific to an individual risk and can be written on either a proportional or non-proportional basis. Generally, the Company has more influence over pricing, as well as terms and conditions, in non-proportional and facultative arrangements.

 

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The distribution of gross premiums written by type of treaty for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 was as follows:

 

     For the three
months ended
June 30,

2008
    For the three
months ended
June 30,

2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,

2008
    For the six
months ended
June 30,

2007
 

Non-life Segment

        

Proportional

   56 %   53 %   50 %   45 %

Non-proportional

   27     26     34     37  

Facultative

   3     5     3     4  

Life Segment

        

Proportional

   14     16     11     12  

Non-proportional

   —       —       2     2  
                        

Total

   100 %   100 %   100 %   100 %

The distribution of gross premiums written by treaty type is affected by changes in the allocation of capacity among lines of business, the timing of receipt by the Company of cedant accounts and premium adjustments by cedants. In addition, foreign exchange fluctuations affected the comparison for all treaty types.

The increase in the percentage of proportional gross premiums written for the Non-life segment in the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same periods in 2007 resulted primarily from the growth in the Company’s agriculture line of business in its U.S. sub-segment.

Premium Distribution by Geographic Region

The geographic distribution of gross premiums written for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 was as follows:

 

     For the three
months ended
June 30,

2008
    For the three
months ended
June 30,

2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,

2008
    For the six
months ended
June 30,

2007
 

Europe

   39 %   40 %   47 %   46 %

North America

   47     47     40     42  

Asia, Australia and New Zealand

   7     8     6     7  

Latin America, Caribbean and Africa

   7     5     7     5  
                        

Total

   100 %   100 %   100 %   100 %

The distribution of gross premiums written was comparable between both periods, except for the increase in Latin America, Caribbean and Africa for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008, which was primarily due to the Company’s premium growth in Brazil and Latin America. The distribution of gross premiums for all non-U.S. regions was affected by foreign exchange fluctuations which increased the non-U.S. premiums as premiums denominated in currencies that have appreciated against the U.S. dollar were converted into U.S. dollars at higher average exchange rates.

Premium Distribution by Production Source

The Company generates its gross premiums written both through brokers and through direct relationships with cedants. The percentage of gross premiums written by source for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 was as follows:

 

     For the three
months ended
June 30,

2008
    For the three
months ended
June 30,

2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,

2008
    For the six
months ended
June 30,

2007
 

Broker

   75 %   72 %   72 %   70 %

Direct

   25     28     28     30  

The distribution of gross premiums written was comparable between both periods.

 

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Corporate and Other

Corporate and Other is comprised of the Company’s capital markets and investment related activities, including principal finance transactions, insurance-linked securities and strategic investments, and its corporate activities, including other operating expenses.

Net Investment Income

The table below provides net investment income by asset source for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 (in millions of U.S. dollars):

 

     For the three
months ended
June 30,

2008
    % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the three
months ended
June 30,

2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,

2008
    % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,

2007
 

Fixed maturities

   $ 129     29 %   $ 100     $ 248     28 %   $ 194  

Equities

     7     (26 )     10       15     (21 )     20  

Short-term investments, trading securities, cash and cash equivalents

     4     (68 )     14       11     (62 )     28  

Funds held and other

     11     (8 )     12       20     10       18  

Investment expenses

     (6 )   27       (5 )     (12 )   18       (10 )
                                    

Net investment income

   $ 145     11     $ 131     $ 282     13     $ 250  

Because of the interest-sensitive nature of some of the Company’s Life products, net investment income is considered in Management’s assessment of the profitability of the Life segment (see Results by Segment above). The following discussion includes net investment income from all investment activities, including the net investment income allocated to the Life segment.

Three-month result

Net investment income increased in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 for the following reasons:

 

   

an increase in net investment income from fixed maturities due to an increase in the asset base resulting from the reinvestment of cash flows from operations, higher reinvestment rates on fixed maturity bonds during the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period of 2007, and net investment income on the Company’s securities that were previously classified as trading, prior to the adoption of SFAS 159; and

 

   

the weakening of the U.S. dollar, on average, in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 contributed 4% of the increase in net investment income; partially offset by

 

   

a decrease in net investment income from equities due to the reduction in the level of equity exposures held and lower dividends received on equity securities during the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period of 2007; and

 

   

a decrease in net investment income from short-term investments, trading securities, and cash and cash equivalents due to the investment of cash and cash equivalents in fixed maturities in 2008.

Six-month result

Net investment income increased in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 for the following reasons:

 

   

an increase in net investment income from fixed maturities due to the factors discussed in the three-month result above;

 

   

an increase in net investment income on funds held as a result of a negative adjustment of $2 million in funds held income reported by a cedant for a longevity treaty in the six months ended June 30, 2007; and

 

   

the weakening of the U.S. dollar, on average, in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 contributed 4% of the increase in net investment income; partially offset by

 

   

a decrease in net investment income from equities and short-term investments, trading securities, and cash and cash equivalents due to the factors discussed in the three-month result above; and

 

   

an increase in investment expenses of $2 million due to the increase in invested assets from 2007 to 2008.

 

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Net Realized and Unrealized Investment Losses

The Company’s portfolio managers have dual investment objectives of optimizing current investment income and achieving capital appreciation. To meet these objectives, it is often desirable to buy and sell securities to take advantage of changing market conditions and to reposition the investment portfolios. Accordingly, recognition of realized gains and losses is considered by the Company to be a normal consequence of its ongoing investment management activities. Realized and unrealized investment gains and losses are generally a function of multiple factors, with the most significant being prevailing interest rates and equity market conditions.

The components of net realized and unrealized investment gains or losses for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 were as follows (in millions of U.S. dollars):

 

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     For the three
months ended
June 30,

2008
    For the three
months ended
June 30,

2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,

2008
    For the six
months ended
June 30,

2007
 

Net realized investment gains (losses) on fixed maturities and short-term investments, excluding other-than-temporary impairments

   $ 18     $ (20 )   $ 63     $ (25 )

Net realized investment (losses) gains on equities, excluding other-than-temporary impairments

     (21 )     47       (47 )     62  

Other-than-temporary impairments

     —         (64 )     —         (74 )

Net realized gains on trading securities

     —         11       —         25  

Change in net unrealized investment losses on trading securities

     —         (4 )     —         (20 )

Net realized and unrealized investment losses on equity securities sold but not yet purchased

     —         (5 )     —         (8 )

Net realized and unrealized gains on designated hedging activities

     —         3       —         5  

Net realized (losses) gains on other invested assets

     (16 )     (18 )     7       (17 )

Change in net unrealized gains on other invested assets

     14       —         12       —    

Change in net unrealized investment losses on fixed maturities subject to the fair value option under SFAS 159

     (303 )     —         (229 )     —    

Change in net unrealized investment gains (losses) on equities subject to the fair value option under SFAS 159

     15       —         (74 )     —    

Net other realized and unrealized investment losses

     (3 )     (4 )     (3 )     (1 )
                                

Net realized and unrealized investment losses

   $ (296 )   $ (54 )   $ (271 )   $ (53 )

The Company adopted SFAS 159 effective January 1, 2008. Prior to the adoption of SFAS 159, unrealized gains and losses, net of taxes, on available for sale securities were recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Following the adoption of SFAS 159, the Company’s available for sale securities have been reclassified as trading securities and all changes in pre-tax unrealized gains and losses are recorded in net realized and unrealized investment losses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. The net realized gains and losses on securities previously classified as trading have been recorded within the related investment classification (fixed maturities or equities) beginning in 2008, and the change in net unrealized investment gains and losses on such securities are included in change in net unrealized investment gains and losses on securities subject to the fair value option under SFAS 159. Following the adoption of SFAS 159, the Company is no longer required to record other-than-temporary impairment charges, as changes in market value are now recorded in net income.

The Company utilizes derivative financial instruments as part of its overall currency risk management strategy to hedge the fair value of certain fixed income securities that were previously classified as available for sale. Prior to the adoption of SFAS 159 on January 1, 2008, these derivatives were designated as fair value hedges under SFAS 133 “Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities” (SFAS 133) and changes in the fair values of these derivatives and the hedged item related to foreign currency were recognized in net realized investment gains and losses in the Consolidated Statement of Operations. As a result of adopting SFAS 159, and in accordance with SFAS No. 133, changes in the fair values of these securities are recognized in net realized and unrealized investment gains and losses, while changes in the fair value of the foreign currency derivatives are recognized in net foreign exchange gains and losses in the Consolidated Statement of Operations.

Three-month result

Net realized and unrealized investment losses increased by $242 million, from a $54 million loss in the three months ended June 30, 2007, to a $296 million loss in the same period of 2008. The increase in net realized and unrealized investment losses was mainly due to increases in U.S. and European interest rates, and reflects the Company’s adoption of SFAS 159, which was effective January 1, 2008 as described above. Net realized and unrealized investment losses of $296 million in the three months ended June 30, 2008 were principally due to changes in net unrealized losses on fixed maturities of $303 million and net realized losses on equities and other invested assets of $37 million, partially offset by net realized gains on fixed maturities of $18 million and changes in net unrealized gains on equities and other invested assets of $29 million. The realized losses incurred during the three months ended June 30, 2007 were mainly due to other-than-temporary impairment charges.

Net realized and unrealized losses on other invested assets were $2 million in the three months ended June 30, 2008, comprised of $16 million in net realized losses and $14 million related to the change in net unrealized gains, compared to a net realized investment loss of $18 million for the same period in 2007. The net realized losses on other invested assets in the 2008 period primarily relate to losses on treasury futures, which are used to manage the duration of the investment portfolio, and realized losses on two principal finance

 

44


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transactions. The net realized losses on other invested assets during the 2007 period primarily related to treasury futures. The change in net unrealized gains of $14 million in the 2008 period primarily relates to the settlement of the two unrelated principal finance transactions referred to above.

Six-month result

Net realized and unrealized investment losses increased by $218 million, from a $53 million loss in the first six months of 2007, to a $271 million loss in the same period of 2008 due to the factors described in the three-month result above. Net realized and unrealized investment losses of $271 million in the six months ended June 30, 2008 were principally due to the change in net unrealized losses on fixed maturities and equities of $303 million and net realized losses on equities of $47 million, partially offset by net realized gains of $63 million on fixed maturities. The realized losses incurred during the six months ended June 30, 2007 were mainly due to other-than-temporary impairment charges and realized losses on fixed maturities, partially offset by realized gains on equities.

Net realized and unrealized gains on other invested assets were $19 million in the six months ended June 30, 2008, comprised of $7 million in net realized gains and $12 million related to the change in net unrealized gains, compared to a net realized investment loss of $17 million for the same period in 2007. The net realized gains on other invested assets in the 2008 period primarily relate to treasury futures partially offset by realized losses on principal finance transactions. The net realized losses on other invested assets during the 2007 period related to treasury futures. The change in net unrealized gains of $12 million in the 2008 period primarily relates to the settlement of the two unrelated principal finance transactions referred to above and was partially offset by the change in unrealized losses on treasury futures.

Interest in Earnings of Equity Investments

Three-month result

Losses from the Company’s interest in the results of equity investments amounted to $2 million for the three months ended June 30, 2008, compared to earnings of $3 million in the same period of 2007.

The loss from the Company’s interest in the results of equity investments for the three months ended June 30, 2008 related to a write-down of one principal finance transaction. Included in the interest in the results of equity investments for the three months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 was $nil and $3 million, respectively, related to the Company’s share of the results of ChannelRe Holdings.

Six-month result

Losses from the Company’s interest in the results of equity investments amounted to $1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2008, compared to earnings of $6 million in the same period of 2007.

Included in the interest in the results of equity investments for the six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 was $nil and $6 million, respectively, related to the Company’s share of the results of ChannelRe Holdings. At June 30, 2008 and December 31, 2007, the carrying value of the Company’s investment in ChannelRe Holdings was $nil.

See Note 9 to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 1 above for a discussion on ChannelRe Holdings.

Technical Result and Other Income (Loss)

Three-month result

Technical result and other income (loss) included in Corporate and Other are from principal finance transactions and insurance-linked securities. The increase of $1 million in the technical result for the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period of 2007 resulted primarily from the insurance-linked securities line. The other income (loss) is described in Review of Net (Loss) Income above.

Six-month result

The increase of $3 million in the technical result for the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period of 2007 resulted primarily from the insurance-linked securities line, which had a technical result of $3 million in the six months ended June 30, 2008, compared to break even in the same period in 2007. The other income (loss) is described in Review of Net (Loss) Income above.

 

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Other Operating Expenses

Other operating expenses for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 were as follows (in millions of U.S. dollars):

 

     For the three
months ended
June 30,

2008
   % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the three
months ended
June 30,

2007
   For the six
months ended
June 30,

2008
   % Change
2008 over
2007
    For the six
months ended
June 30,

2007

Other operating expenses

   $ 97    21 %   $ 80    $ 189    19 %   $ 159

Three-month result

Other operating expenses represent 10.1% and 9.0% of net premiums earned (both life and non-life) for the three months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007, respectively. Other operating expenses included in Corporate and Other were $22 million and $20 million for the three months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007, respectively, of which $18 million and $19 million are related to corporate activities for 2008 and 2007, respectively.

The increase in operating expenses of 21% for the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 consisted primarily of increases in personnel costs of $16 million, including salaries and annual incentive accruals. The weakening of the U.S. dollar, on average, in the three months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007, contributed 8% to the increase in other operating expenses.

Six-month result

Other operating expenses represent 10.1% and 9.2% of net premiums earned (both life and non-life) for the six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007, respectively. Other operating expenses included in Corporate and Other were $48 million and $40 million for the six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007, respectively, of which $40 million and $36 million are related to corporate activities for 2008 and 2007, respectively.

The increase in operating expenses of 19% for the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007 consisted primarily of increases in personnel costs of $28 million, including salaries, annual incentive accruals and stock-based compensation expense. The weakening of the U.S. dollar, on average, in the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to the same period in 2007, contributed 6% to the increase in other operating expenses.

Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources

See the Company’s Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources discussion in Item 7 of Part II of the Company’s 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following discussion of financial condition, liquidity and capital resources at June 30, 2008 focuses only on material changes from December 31, 2007.

Investments

Total investments and cash were $12.0 billion at June 30, 2008, compared to $11.6 billion at December 31, 2007. The major factors influencing the increase in the six-month period ended June 30, 2008 were:

 

   

net cash provided by operating activities of $520 million;

 

   

other factors, the primary one being the net positive influence of the effect of a weaker U.S. dollar relative to the euro and other currencies as it relates to the conversion of invested assets and cash balances into U.S. dollars, amounting to approximately $289 million;

 

   

net proceeds of $28 million from the issuance of senior notes, the redemption of the 5.81% fixed rate bank loan and associated financing costs; and

 

   

increase in net payable for securities purchased of $20 million; offset by

 

   

decrease in the market value of the investment portfolio (realized and unrealized) of $288 million resulting from a decrease in the fixed maturity portfolio of $167 million and a decrease in the equity portfolio of $121 million;

 

   

net payment for the Company’s common shares of $33 million resulting from the repurchase of common shares of $40 million under the Company’s share repurchase program, partially offset by $7 million related to the issuance of common shares under the Company’s equity plans; and

 

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dividend payments on common and preferred shares totaling $67 million.

The Company employs a prudent investment philosophy. It maintains a high-quality, well-balanced and liquid portfolio having the dual objectives of optimizing current investment income and achieving capital appreciation. The Company’s invested assets are comprised of total investments, cash and cash equivalents and accrued investment income. From a risk management perspective, the Company allocates its invested assets into two categories: liability funds and capital funds. At June 30, 2008, the liability funds totaled $7.3 billion and were comprised of cash and cash equivalents and high quality fixed income securities. The capital funds, which totaled $4.9 billion, were comprised of cash and cash equivalents, investment-grade and below investment-grade fixed income securities, preferred and common stocks, private equity and bond investments, and convertible fixed income securities. For additional information on liability funds, capital funds and the use of derivative financial instruments in the Company’s investment strategy, see Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources in Item 7 of Part II of the Company’s 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Effective January 1, 2008, the Company adopted SFAS 159. As a result of the adoption of SFAS 159, fixed maturities, short-term investments and equities that were previously classified as available for sale were reclassified as trading securities. The market value of investments classified as trading securities was $11.5 billion at June 30, 2008. Trading securities are carried at fair value with changes in fair value included in net realized and unrealized investment gains and losses in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. As a consequence, the Company is no longer required to perform an analysis of its investments for other-than-temporary impairment.

At June 30, 2008, approximately 96% of the Company’s fixed income securities, including bank loans and other fixed income type mutual funds, were rated investment-grade (BBB- or higher) by Standard & Poor’s (or estimated equivalent) and 98% of the Company’s fixed income securities were publicly traded.

The average duration of the Company’s investment portfolio was 3.8 years at June 30, 2008 and 3.9 years at December 31, 2007, which approximates the duration of the Company’s liabilities. For the purposes of managing portfolio duration, the Company uses exchange traded treasury note futures. The use of treasury futures at June 30, 2008 allowed the Company to reduce the duration of its investment portfolio from 4.0 years to 3.8 years.

Fixed maturities, short-term investments and cash and cash equivalents had an average yield to maturity at market of 5.0% at June 30, 2008 compared to 4.7% at December 31, 2007, reflecting increases in U.S. and European interest rates, which were partially offset by tightening spreads on corporate and mortgage-backed securities.

The cost, gross unrealized gains, gross unrealized losses and fair value of investments classified as trading at June 30, 2008 were as follows (in millions of U.S. dollars):

 

June 30, 2008

   Cost(1)    Gross
Unrealized
Gains
   Gross
Unrealized
Losses
    Fair
Value

Fixed maturities

          

U.S. government and agencies

   $ 1,131    $ 20    $ (6 )   $ 1,145

other foreign governments

     2,953      25      (61 )     2,917

corporate

     3,844      30      (100 )     3,774

mortgage/asset-backed securities

     2,490      13      (51 )     2,452
                            

Total fixed maturities

     10,418      88      (218 )     10,288

Short-term investments

     109      —        (1 )     108

Equities

     1,120      30      (85 )     1,065
                            

Total

   $ 11,647    $ 118    $ (304 )   $ 11,461

 

(1) Cost is amortized cost for fixed maturities and short-term investments and cost for equity securities.

U.S. government and agencies included both U.S. treasuries and agencies of the U.S. government. At June 30, 2008, U.S. treasuries accounted for 76% of this category. Although U.S. treasuries and agencies are not rated, they are generally considered to have credit quality equivalent to or greater than AAA corporate issues.

Included in other foreign governments are obligations of non-U.S. governments and their agencies. At June 30, 2008, 84% of this category was rated AAA, while investment grade government and agency obligations accounted for the remaining 16% of this category. The largest three foreign government issuers (Germany, Canada and France) accounted for 82% of this category at June 30, 2008.